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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
July-September 2020
Volume 7 | Issue 3
Page Nos. 39-90

Online since Tuesday, September 29, 2020

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ORIGINAL ARTICLES  

Oral health – Knowledge, attitude, and practices of primary school teachers in Shirur, Udupi District India p. 39
Mohammed Ali Habibullah
DOI:10.4103/INPC.INPC_37_20  
Background: Oral health is an integral part of the general health of an individual. Children spend a considerable period in schools and teachers are in an enviable position to influence and guide children. School-based oral health education (OHE) is valuable as children are guided when young during the formation of their oral hygiene habits. Aim: This study was undertaken with the objective of assessing the oral health knowledge, attitudes, and practices of primary school teachers. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional survey was conducted among primary school teachers in Shirur village of Udupi district. A validated questionnaire was used, and a total of 103 teachers were assessed for their knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding oral hygiene. Statistical Analysis: Data description and statistical analysis were obtained using IBM SPSS Version 21-computer software (IBM Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, SPSS 21.0, Inc., Chicago, USA) in association with Microsoft Excel. Descriptive statistics were obtained, and the mean values and frequency distributions were calculated. Results: All teachers (100%) were unanimous in their agreement that oral health was an integral part of general health and 95.3% (n = 102) agreed on the need for periodic dental check up. A majority (55.8%) of the teachers brushed twice daily and 32.7% of them visited their dentist once every 6 months. All teachers were interested in delivering OHE in schools. Conclusions: School teachers can be effectively used for OHE in schools. There is a need for a comprehensive approach to include OHE in schools through activities such as dental examinations and demonstration of brushing techniques.
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Influence of family structure on dental caries experience of preschool children: A cross-sectional study p. 43
Sajina Sam, Binoy Mathews Nedumgottil
DOI:10.4103/INPC.INPC_36_20  
Introduction: Dental caries is the most common oral disease affecting preschoolers. Despite the improvement in oral hygiene practices and dietary habits, no evident decline in their decayed, missing, and filled teeth levels was observed, which shifts away the focus of understanding its etiology from primarily a dietary-induced bacterial infection to a rather complex disease with multiple contributing factors. Aim: The aim is to explore the impact of parental characteristics and family structure on dental caries experience of preschoolers. Subjects and Methods: Dental caries status of 200 children, aged 3–5 years in Chidambaram was assessed using the WHO standard criteria for primary teeth and informations on family structure were obtained from parents using questionnaire. Results: Family size, birth rank, age difference between the subject and siblings, parent's age, and educational status of parents were found to be associated with the dental caries experience of the preschoolers at bivariate level. In a stepwise multiple linear regression analysis family size, birth rank, and mother's educational status remained statistically significant. Conclusion: Family structure might significantly affect the caries experience of preschool children.
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Evaluation of transtheoretical model-based questionnaire for tobacco cessation counseling of Class IV workers in Dhule district: A randomized controlled trial p. 46
Mayuri Nepale, Prashanth Yachrappa Vishwakarma, Arun Suresh Dodamani, Vardhaman Mulchand Jain, Gaurao Vasant Mali, Anagha Shobhit Saxena
DOI:10.4103/INPC.INPC_34_20  
Background: Small number of tobacco users are fully aware of its harmful effects. Warning labels on tobacco products are an effective way of communicating the consequences of tobacco use and bring about behavioral changes such as quitting. Aim: The study aims to test the validity and reliability of a transtheoretical model (TTM) based questionnaire for tobacco cessation in Class IV workers. Methodology: A descriptive randomized control trial was carried out among 268 participants who were randomly selected from Class IV workers of Jawahar Soot Girni, Dhule. The participants were randomly divided by the block randomization technique into two groups equally as Group A and B, where Group A received verbal tobacco counseling and Group B received tobacco counseling in the form of pictorial warning. TTM model-based questionnaire was used as a method of measurement to evaluate the effect of pictorial warning interventions. Results: In the study group, preresponse 64% said no, they did not felt unease due to the presence of health warning, 35.1% of participants said yes, they felt unease due to the presence of health warning and post response was 22.4% said no, they did not felt unease due to the presence of health warning, 77.6% said yes, they felt unease due to the presence of health warning. The comparison showed there is a significant difference in pre- and postscore (P < 0.05). The pictorial warning was found to be statistically significant as compared to verbal instructions only. Conclusion: Warning labels on tobacco packs effectively inform people about the adverse health effects of tobacco when compared to oral instructions.
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Assessment of the qualification and performance of the assistants working in the private dental clinics in Bilaspur, Chhattisgarh p. 49
HB Annapoorna, Dipayan Datta, Grace Tara Paul, Niharika Rai, Sonia Sharma, Shweta Kohli
DOI:10.4103/INPC.INPC_23_20  
Background: A qualified dental assistant is expected to have proper knowledge in, various treatment procedures, handling instruments, infection control and health hazards. The present survey has been conducted to assess the qualification and performances of the assistants working in different dental clinics. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire survey was conducted among the assistants working in 22 dental clinics in Bilaspur, Chhattisgarh. Results: Only one clinic had a qualified Dental Hygienist and the other assistants working in other clinics were lacking professional degrees. Around 91% were involved in mixing restorative materials, 32% were involved in taking radiographs, 45.5% were not immunized for Hepatitis B and 19.2% of them have no knowledge about transmission of diseases like AIDS. Conclusion: The present study shows almost all the assistants working in private dental clinics were not qualified with professional degrees. The dental surgeons should be much more concerned in recruiting only qualified dental auxiliaries.
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Stress and its management strategies among the students of undergraduate level: An original research p. 52
Heenal Adhyaru, Vino Tito V. Kurien, Jyotsna Sethumadhavan, Prachi Gholap, Reshma Avhad, Neha Naranje
DOI:10.4103/INPC.INPC_29_20  
Introduction: Everyone is under stress at some times in their lives, which is an uncomfortable situation that affects our sense of well-being and quality of life. Aim and Objectives: The present study was done to identify the main sources among students of stress, discover their coping strategies during stress, and how they overcome stress. Materials and Methods: This descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted at Dr. RRK Dental College and Hospital, Akola. A total of 339 students were asked using a self-structured questionnaire. Results: While asking the information about stress, it was found that 75.9% of students were having stress in their life. Nearly 58.4% of students consider study-related stress as the main reason, followed by educational stress (15.8%). Around 79.3% of the students felt fatigue when exposed to stress. The students (86.1%) were finding difficult to concentrate on day-to-day life under stressful conditions. Nearly 75% of students felt anxiety and restlessness during stress. Conclusions: We found that students were exposed to stress, and academic or study-related stress was the main reason.
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Effect of fluoride- and nonfluoride-remineralizing agents in white spot lesions in mentally retarded children: A parallel randomized clinical trial p. 55
Mayank Das, L Vamsi Krishna Reddy, Sanjay Singh, Abhishek Kumar Dubey, Avnica Agarwal, Mandar Todkar
DOI:10.4103/INPC.INPC_31_20  
Background: Dental caries is one of the prevalent oral diseases among mentally retarded children, and restorative, preventive treatment needs are unmet. Materials and Methods: The study was a double-blinded, parallel, randomized clinical trial. A total of 150 participants aged 7–12 years were selected. Unpaired t-test and repeated measures analysis of variance test were used for analysis. Results: In Group A, at 12 months, 97.2% active and 2.8% inactive lesions were reported. In Group B, at 9 and 12 months, 98.6% and 94.3% active and 1.4% and 5.7% inactive white spot lesions (WSLs) were seen. Conclusion: Fluoride- and nonfluoride-remineralizing agents reported a slight reduction in active WSLs.
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A comparative evaluation of the efficacy of two instrumentation techniques in simulated root canals when using contemporary rotary files p. 58
Mohammed Al Qarni
DOI:10.4103/INPC.INPC_11_20  
Background: Over the past many years, rotary nickel–titanium (NiTi) instruments have become widely used in endodontics. These superelastic instruments offer benefits over hand instrumentation for preparing curved root canals, including less transportation of the canal and reduced operating time. The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare single length with crown-down methods' shaping ability using Mtwo NiTi files. Subjects and Methods: One hundred extracted human first and second mandibular molars were divided into two experimental groups. In Group A, single length technique was used, and in Group B, root canals were prepared by the crown-down technique. Pre- and postpreparation canals were photographed in a standardized manner and were superimposed. Results: Statistical analysis revealed that in Group A, the inner wall was predominantly removed (P < 0.01), whereas in Group B, dentine was equally removed within the canal coronal to the curvature. Conclusion: There was no significant difference between the single length method and crown-down technique using Mtwo for the preparation f the apical and middle portion of canal curvature.
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Effect of delmopinol application on Candida albicans adherence on denture-bearing surface of heat-cured and cold-cured acrylic resins – An in vitro study p. 61
Prabha Shakya Newaskar, Umesh Palekar, Tanuspriya Sonkar, Subhash Sonkeshariya, Pallavi Madanshetty, Deepak Vikhe
DOI:10.4103/INPC.INPC_12_20  
Purpose: In this in vitro study, we evaluate the effect of delmopinol application on Candida albicans adherence on heat-cured acrylic resin and cold-cured acrylic resin. Materials and Methods: A total of 60 specimens of every sort of acrylic resin were made, 20 specimens of each type were control group, 20 specimens were contaminated before delmopinol application, and 20 specimens were contaminated after delmopinol application. Each specimen in each tube was individually transferred to a spectrophotometer at 530 nm wavelength to measure the turbidity degree through the transmittance. Aliquots of 10 μl of every tube were then collected and inoculated into agar Sabouraud plates containing 500 mmol/l of sucrose, which was incubated for 24 h at 37°C, so as to see the microbial growth. Two-way ANOVA analysis of variance test and post hoc Turkey's test were carried out to ascertain the level of significance (P < 0.001) of various observations. Conclusion: In case of contamination after delmopinol application, heat-cured acrylic resin showed a greater reduction in the adherence of C. albicans in this study.
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OPINION ARTICLE Top

Gaps in the teeth: Coming together to address oral needs in the terminally ill p. 65
Kristi M Soileau
DOI:10.4103/INPC.INPC_28_20  
For the hospice patient needing palliative care, quality of life must encompass all aspects of comfort management. Often, medical and dental professionals and caregivers under their management in both homes and institutions hesitate or simply do not elect to offer oral care for patients nearing the end of life. This may be due to many factors, including difficulties encountered in patient compliance or lack of education as to how and why such care should be delivered to the hospice patient. This article aims to clarify the reasons why the hospice patient, cognizant or not, needs properly and regularly implemented oral care and why both medical and dental professionals have an ethical responsibility to concomitantly address the current void that exists in delivering it.
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REVIEW ARTICLES Top

Role of growth factors in bone regeneration p. 69
Ankit Agarwal, Nisha Singh, Mohsin Khan, Samir Sahib Merajun Nabi Khan, Kush Sahu, Shyam Uttamrao Jadhav
DOI:10.4103/INPC.INPC_26_20  
Regeneration of periodontal structures lost during periodontal diseases constitutes a complex biological process regulated among others by interactions between cells and growth factors. Growth factors are biologically active polypeptides affecting the proliferation, chemotaxis, and differentiation of cells from the epithelium, bone, and connective tissue.
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Prevention of oral cancer by natural products p. 72
Mohamed Yaser Kharma, Baydaa Koussa, Mawada Dadoue, Mohammed Daboul, Rania Hasan, Raneem Daboul, Manar Muhsin
DOI:10.4103/INPC.INPC_22_20  
Oral cancer has a tendency to be detected at late stage which is detrimental to the patients because of its high mortality and morbidity rates. Early detection of oral cancer is important to reduce the incidence of mortality. The use of natural products which have a rich source of anticancer agents helps to reverse, suppress, or prevent carcinogenic progression. Chemopreventive agents play a crucial role in reversal, suppression, and prevention of carcinogenesis of premalignant or malignant cells by modulating cell proliferation or differentiation. This article review describes the most important chemopreventive agents taking place in the prevention of premalignant lesions to develop to oral cancer. By including cancer fighting foods in the daily diet like leafy green vegetables, sweet potatoes, carrots, soya, seaweed, drumsticks, tomatoes, grapes, avocado, grapefruit, papaya, lemon, oranges, and green tea, oral cancer can be prevented. Natural therapies may be a good substitute in the prevention of premalignant lesion to develop to invasive cancer by using Chemotherapeutic agents.
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Impact of pandemic COVID-19 on dental services: A review p. 79
Saransh Srivastava, Priyanka Tandon, Nikita Jain, Sarveshwari Singh
DOI:10.4103/INPC.INPC_19_20  
COVID-19 has emerged as a pandemic outbreak, and it has become a virulent disease. Coronavirus belongs to the family of enveloped, single-stranded, positive-strand RNA viruses classified under Nidovirales order. Dentists are at very high risk to get exposed to the virus due to direct contact with the oral cavity and aerosol produced by the salivary droplets of patients. Hence, several dental care facilities in the affected nations were completely closed or have been presenting minimum remedy for emergency cases. This assessment article aimed to provide a brief knowledge about the origin, mode of transmission, stages of spread of the disease, effect of the outbreak of the disease on dentistry, and patient management and prevention guidelines to be followed by dental practitioners.
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CASE REPORTS Top

Endodontic management of internal inflammatory resorption p. 84
Rahul Paresh Ved, Vibha Hegde
DOI:10.4103/INPC.INPC_27_20  
Management of internal resorptive defects are always a challenge for an endodontist. Internal resorption occurs mostly commonly due to trauma or a long stand chronic pulpal irritation following caries or trauma and is most commonly seen in the anterior teeth and sometimes in the posterior teeth as well. Early diagnosis and removal of underlying pathology are important for long-term success. The case paper reports nonsurgical management of a case of internal inflammatory resorption treated by root canal therapy followed by obturation with thermoplasticized gutta-percha.
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Clinical and esthetic outcome of immediate implant placed in postextraction site with alveolar bone defect using guided bone regeneration p. 87
Sachin Khurana, Manish Khatri, Mansi Bansal, Mohd Rehan, Komal Puri, Rana Afreen, Ritika Narang
DOI:10.4103/INPC.INPC_14_20  
A 50-year-old male presented with nonrestorable fractured upper right first premolar. The implant was placed immediately after extraction, and guided bone regeneration (GBR) was performed simultaneously to correct the dehiscence at the labial aspect. Five months after implant placement, the treatment showed satisfactory results both clinically and radiographically. The periapical radiograph confirmed the complication-free integration of the implant and repair of buccal defect. Thus, immediate implant placement with simultaneous GBR in postextraction sockets with bony defects is a reliable technique with predictable results. However, this protocol is technique sensitive, and a number of guidelines and prerequisites need to be seriously considered, especially good primary stability and correct three-dimensional placement.
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