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   Table of Contents - Current issue
October-December 2020
Volume 7 | Issue 4
Page Nos. 91-121

Online since Tuesday, December 29, 2020

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Effect of titanium oxide and zirconium oxide nanoparticle incorporation on the flexural strength of heat-activated polymethyl methacrylate denture base resins – An in vitro experimental study p. 91
Prasanth Viswambharan, AR Adhershitha
Introduction: Flexural strength is one of the most important properties which determine the clinical success of dentures. Even though titanium oxide nanoparticles (nano-TiO2) and zirconium oxide nanoparticles (nano-ZrO2) are extensively used to modify the properties of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) resin, there is negligible documentation in the literature comparing these two. Aim: The aim of the study is to find out and compare the effect of incorporation of 1 weight % nano-TiO2 and nano-ZrO2 on the flexural strength of heat-activated PMMA resin. Materials and Methods: 1 weight % of TiO2 and ZrO2 nanoparticles were weighed using a digital weighing balance and mixed with PMMA resin powder using the geometric dilution method. Sixty “35 mm × 10 mm × 3 mm” rectangular-shaped specimens fabricated were divided into three different groups, each containing twenty samples each. The specimens were loaded to failure at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min and with 500 N load cell in a Universal Instron Testing Machine, Model 3345. Flexural strength was registered by the machine with 0.001 MPa precision. Results: PMMA with nano-TiO2 group had the maximum flexural strength, load at maximum flexure, and load at break followed by unreinforced PMMA and PMMA with nano-ZrO2. Statistically significant difference was noted between the three groups (P < 0.001). Post hoc analysis using Tukey's post hoc test showed a statistically significant difference for all three pair-wise comparison. Conclusions: Within the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that nano-TiO2 greatly enhanced the flexural strength, load at maximum flexure load, and load at break of PMMA resin, whereas nano-ZrO2 significantly reduced these properties of PMMA.
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Prevalence of periodontal diseases in orthodontic patients p. 96
Ujjwal Priyadarsi, Mohammad Shahbaz Alam, Abid Hussain, Farrukh Azam, Priyanka Kumari, Md Abu Nafe
Objective: The objective was to investigate the association between orthodontic treatment and periodontitis in a representative sample of Jharkhand. Methodology: The clinical examinations at six sites per tooth were assessed using visible plaque index (VPI), gingival bleeding index (GBI), bleeding on probing (BOP), periodontal probing depth (PPD), and clinical attachment loss (CAL). A manual Williams probe (Neumar, São Paulo, Brazil) was used, except for the VPI. Data analysis was done. Results: The median percentage values of sites positive for VPI, GBI, and BOP were calculated for each group and compared using a Mann–Whitney test and the mean values for PPD and CAL with a Student's t-test. Intragroup comparisons between teeth were performed with Tukey's analysis of variance. The level of significance was set at 5%. Conclusion: The use of orthodontic appliances is not necessarily related to worsening periodontal conditions. The results of the present study reinforce the importance of susceptibility to periodontal disease independent of the presence of a well-known retentive plaque factor, i.e., orthodontic appliances and/or bands.
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Awareness and attitude toward COVID-19 among the students of a rural tertiary care center and dental college: A cross-sectional study p. 99
AR Adhershitha, Prasanth Viswambharan, Sheela Virginia Rodrigues
Introduction: Awareness, attitude, and practice play a major role in containing any infectious disease. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has no definitive treatment or vaccines; hence, it is momentous to spread awareness regarding the prevention strategies. It is crucial for the government and concerned authorities to understand the students' perception and attitude in the time of the current pandemic. Aim: The aim of this study is to assess the level of awareness among the students of Government Dental College Alappuzha, a rural tertiary care center and Dental College in Kerala, India, regarding COVID-19 and their attitude toward the pandemic. Methodology: Questionnaire which included 21 items was used for the research. Observed data were coded, tabulated, and analyzed using IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows (Version 20.0. Armonk, NY, USA: IBM Corp.). The total awareness score calculated was 20. Comparison between gender (males/females) and study groups (preclinical students/clinical students) was made using the Chi-square test. Comparison of total awareness scores between study groups was made using independent t-test. Results: Most of the study participants across study groups regularly kept track of the latest news on COVID-19 and perceived it to be of moderate or very dangerous risk though they were quite optimistic of its control. About 96% of males and 82% of females felt it is necessary to get mental health help if one panics in lieu of the pandemic situation. The mean total awareness score (out of 20) was 15.16 ± 1.81. There was no significant difference in total awareness score based on gender (15.23 ± 2.24 for males and 15.15 ± 1.71 for females) and also among the category of students (14.88 ± 1.94 for preclinical students and 15.35 ± 1.69 among clinical students). Conclusions: Attempts should be made for increasing the awareness regarding the preferred method of hand hygiene, protocol for performing aerosol-generating procedures, and airborne infection isolation room.
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Knowledge attitude and practice of school personnel on COTPA p. 104
Dhwani Desai, Dhvani Desai
Background: The “Cigarettes and Other Tobacco Products (Prohibition of Advertisement and Regulation of Trade and Commerce, Production, Supply, and Distribution) Act (COTPA)” has been formulated to control the Tobacco epidemic in India. School personnel serve as role models for students and have daily interaction with students, while college students may be under the influence of adolescent behavior and cigarettes is easier to procure. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire-based study carried out on a convenience sample of 100 school personnel aged 18–60 years, participated in the study. Five schools were undertaken in this study on the basis of convenience sampling. All the school personnel preseent on the day of conduction of survey were included in the study. Results: The awareness of school personnel in relation to COTPA ranges between 21% and 79% whereas least awareness (80%) was seen in relation to loose cigarettes not to be sold. Conclusion: The present study indicates that participants have lesser and inappropriate knowledge and attitude toward COTPA and majority of not taken any step to implement COTPA in their work place
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Trends in the patterns of maxillofacial fractures in Kolkata p. 107
Gourab Das, Dhritiman Pathak, Bharat Shukla, Ruchira Shukla, Dazy Patel, Krishna Mondal
Background:- The maxillofacial skeleton is commonly fractured due to its prominent position. Maxillofacial fractures lead to cosmetic disfigurement as well as problems in oral functioning. Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the incidence, etiology, mode, and the pattern of fractures in the maxillofacial region. Methods: A retrospective study of maxillofacial injuries at ESIC Medical College and Hospital, Joka (Kolkata) between Feb 2018 to April 2019 was conducted and data extracted from patients who were either treated in emergency room or in outpatient department. Results and Conclusion: The study concluded that better road safety laws need to be enforced along with the improvement of the education and socio-economic setup.
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Temporomandibular disorders: An updated review p. 111
M Nazargi Mahabob
A group of conditions related to temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is called as “temporomandibular disorder” (TMD). Several attempts were made to classify TMD based on the frequency of occurrence, etiology, and anatomy, but they have had some shortfalls, and one mostly accepted is diagnostic criteria/TMD classification. TMD is a group of clinical problems; it involves either TMJ or its associated structures separately or combination. Any factor that affects one part of the system is likely to have an impact on the other parts also, so it is essential to approach carefully when considering likely signs and symptoms of TMD. About 20%–30% of the adult populations are affected to some degree of TMD, and it is predominately affected young and middle-aged adults. The prevalence rate of TMD problems twice common in females than the males. The etiology of TMD is inconclusive, and now, it has been accepted that multiple factors play a role in TMD. Since it is multifactorial, treatment should be planned according to that and varies patient to patient. Majority of the patients having mild-to-moderate TMD and conservative treatment approach over surgery results in satisfactory outcomes. The aim of this review is to evaluate the recent updates and propose solutions for patients with TMD.
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Prosthodontic rehabilitation of an edentulous hemimandibulectomy patient p. 115
Saumil Chetan Sampat, Mistry Saloni, Banga Parmeet, Dole Vinay, Dubey Amol
Edentulous patients with lateral discontinuity defects of the mandible pose a challenge for the prosthodontist. With variable degrees of bony and soft-tissue resection, the prosthodontic prognosis is dependent on a number of complex factors. Complete dentures in such patients are primarily given for improvement of esthetics. In a selected few patients, however, such prosthesis may improve speech and masticatory function. This case report describes the use of two rows of nonanatomic teeth (in the maxillary denture) on the unresected side to broaden the occlusal table, thus fulfilling the patient's needs and requirements.
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Apexification in primary central incisor p. 119
Nandita Mohan, Shriyam Sharan, Supreeya Patel, Divya Nigam, Aarti Kumari, Silpi Chatterjee
The upper deciduous incisors are frequently the teeth most commonly affected either by dental caries or due to the impact of trauma. In such cases, there may be complete coronary destruction of teeth. As they erupt around 7½–9 months of age and the roots only complete at approximately 18–24 months, pulp involvement may occur even before the end of this process. Hereby, we highlight the case of a 15-month-old male patient who reported with a history of trauma. Treatment plan of apexification was made after confirming with multiple radiographs. Root-end closure was obtained after a period of 7 months.
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