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Table of Contents
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2021  |  Volume : 8  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 31-34

Morphologic patterns of lip prints in a sample of Sudanese population: A cross-sectional study


1 Graduate, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Medical Sciences and Technology, Sudan
2 Former, Associate Professor, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Medical Sciences and Technology, Sudan

Date of Submission23-Oct-2020
Date of Acceptance22-Nov-2020
Date of Web Publication30-Jun-2021

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Andy Mohamed Haroun
Department of Restorative Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Medical Sciences and Technology, Khartoum
Sudan
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/ijpcdr.ijpcdr_45_20

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  Abstract 


Background: The outer surrounding surface of the lips has elevations, depressions, normal lines, and fissures in the form of wrinkles and grooves present in the zone of the transition of the lip which can be used in the identification of a person.
Aims: The aim was to determine the predominant type of lip print among a sample of the Sudanese population and to assess the relation between lip print with age and gender.
Materials and Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study among 394 (150 males and 244 females) adult Sudanese participants living within the Khartoum city. Those with a history of lip injury, congenitally deformed lip, children, very old or coming from the eastern region were excluded. Red lipstick impression with a white chart paper in the normal rest position of the lips by dabbing it in the center first and then press it uniformly toward the corners. Lip print type was assessed according to Suzuki and Tsuchihashi's from type 1 to type V. Comparison between variables by Chi-Squire with the level of significance set at P value of <0.05.
Results: Result showed a unique different type of lip print among peoples coming from different regions and different tribes in Sudan. Type I was predominantly among the studied population and the least was type V. The predominant type of lip print among those their origin is from the Northern was type I (32.6%), type II was among those from Southern (28.6%), and type I' among those from Western (33.3%). There was no statistical significance difference between the type of lip print among male and female or between different age groups.
Conclusion: Type I' lip print pattern was most common type of lip print pattern among the studied population with no association between age or sex and lip print type. Increasing sample size and conducting the examination on participants from different regions in Sudan, can eliminate any confounding factors and gives valid and reliable findings.

Keywords: Cheiloscopy, forensic odontology, lip print, personal identification


How to cite this article:
Haroun AM, Awooda EM. Morphologic patterns of lip prints in a sample of Sudanese population: A cross-sectional study. Int J Prev Clin Dent Res 2021;8:31-4

How to cite this URL:
Haroun AM, Awooda EM. Morphologic patterns of lip prints in a sample of Sudanese population: A cross-sectional study. Int J Prev Clin Dent Res [serial online] 2021 [cited 2021 Jul 29];8:31-4. Available from: https://www.ijpcdr.org/text.asp?2021/8/2/31/320057




  Introduction Top


Lip prints are unique to every individual, it differs from one person to another, and hence, they can be used as an evidence for personal identification. The outer surrounding surface of the lips has elevations, depressions, normal lines, and fissures in the form of wrinkles and grooves present in the zone of the transition of the lip.[1] The lip crease pattern is on the vermilion border of the lip, which is quite mobile and lip prints may vary in appearance according to the pressure, direction, and method used in making the print.[2] Suzuki and Tsuchihashi, in 1971, devised a classification method of lip prints.[3]

Lip prints can be recorded in a number of ways like photographing the suspect's lips or on a non-porous flat surface such a mirror, or other suitable transfer mediums as they can be photographed, enlarged and overlay tracings made of the grooves.[3] Lip print can also be recorded by using a finger printer, preferably a roller finger printer. Then prints are processed with either conventional finger print developing powder or with a magna brush and magnetic powder.[4] Literature reviews on lip print show the uniqueness of lip print among different population with a predominant type of lip print in a different regions and different ethnic groups.[5],[6],[7] There is controversy results of similarity and dissimilarity of lip print types between males and females.[8],[9],[10] Sudan is one of the biggest countries in Africa, with different ethnic groups and a population of approximately 43 million[11] Khartoum state (one of the 18 Sudanese States) is the capital of Sudan, represented the most populated one approximately 6 million.[11] It comprised a pool of different ethnic and cultural groups coming from almost the whole country. Lip print can be used for personal identification and forensic odontology, especially for the multiethnicity population, no previous data available about the types of lip print among the Sudanese population, so the main objective of this study was to identify the types of lip print among a sample of Sudanese population while the specific objectives were to assess the relationship of lip print to age, gender, and the region from where state origin the studied population come from.


  Materials and Methods Top


This was a descriptive, analytical, cross-sectional study among a sample of adult Sudanese, residing in Khartoum State. The study area was two hospitals in Khartoum State (the Academy Dental Teaching Hospital and the National Ribat Teaching Hospital) selected randomly from hospitals in Khartoum State. The study population was adult male and female Sudanese citizens. The excluded were those with a history of lip injury, congenitally deformed lip, or Sudanese people coming from East of Sudan (Red Sea State) because those tribes residing along the Red Sea coast and are minority in Khartoum State. A total of 394 subjects (150 males and 244 females) were participated in the study. All procedures performed in the study were conducted in accordance with the ethics standards given in 1964 Declaration of Helsinki, as revised in 2013. The study proposal was submitted for approval and clearance was obtained from the ethical committee of our institution. A written informed consent was obtained from each participant. The method for recording lip print was adopted from the previous study by Suzuki K and Tsuchihashi Y [Figure 1].[3] The central part of the lips is the important part to study, the lips were cleaned with a wet cotton, then red lipstick (Matte Golden Rose Brand, number 20) was applied on the lips by disposable cotton bud; the participant was asked to make a lip impression with a white chart paper in the normal rest position of the lips by dabbing it in the center first and then press it uniformly toward the corners of the lips as shown in [Figure 2] and [Figure 3].[1],[3] Cheiloscopy was used as identification technique by the magnifying lens (handheld × 5 magnifier, glass, 75 mm, made in China).[3],[12] Finally, the recorded prints were saved in a table with the age of the participants, gender, and tribe [Figure 4].[2] The data were collected by a single investigator (AH). She was trained in data collection in a pilot sample of 20 participants to assess intra-examiner errors and testing validity and reliability by Cronbach's alpha test which was found to be 0.88. The piloted participants were not included in the final study. The study was approved by the Ethical Committee from the University of Medical Sciences and Technology and permission from the administrative authorities of the two hospitals. Participation in this study was voluntary and those who agreed were requested to sign informed written consent. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 21 Chicago, Illinois, USA, and the comparison between different variables was done by the Chi-Squire test with the level of significance set at the P value of ≤0.05
Figure 1: Suzuki's classification of lip prints[3]

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Figure 2: Technique of how lip print taken

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Figure 3: Lip print type of one of the participants

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Figure 4: Types of lip prints among the participants

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  Results Top


The result showed a unique different type of lip print among peoples coming from different regions and different tribes in Sudan, and during data collection, they were residing in Khartoum State. Type 1 was the most predominant among the sample of studied Sudanese population. The distribution of different types of lip prints according to the gender is shown in [Figure 5], with no statistical significance difference between males and females with P>0.05. There was no association between age and types of lip print with P>0.05. [Figure 6] displays the percentage of the predominant type of lip print among different population coming from different regions in Sudan and except those from the East.
Figure 5: Distribution of lip prints according to the gender

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Figure 6: The distribution of lip print types among different tribes in Khartoum city

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  Discussion Top


A series of forensic odonatological studies on the morphology of the lips and the pattern produced when they are impressed onto a variety of surfaces form a worthy weapon for personal identification. Work on this subject has already elicited useful information; however, limitations still exist in the use of lip prints.[2] Lip prints can be found on surfaces such as glass, clothing, cutlery, or cigarette butts. Even the invisible lip prints can be used and can be lifted using aluminum and magnetic powder. The vermillion border of lips has sebaceous glands with sweat glands in between; therefore, secretions of oil and moisture enable the development of “latent” or persistent lip prints, analogous to fingerprints.[2],[9] On analysis of lip print patterns, Type 1' was found to be the predominant type and predominant among female sample of Sudanese population; this is similar to others.[5],[13] Dissimilar to our study, Kenneth et al. found Types 1 and 11 as predominant among Calicut (India).[14] Type V was found among one participant in our study, and it is considered as a very rare; as the same rarity was showed by the results of others,[6],[15] while it is predominant in one study from India.[5] The rarity of the type (V) could be explained; as it is rare among the whole humans and could be due to genetic or inherited factors.[13]

Dissimilar to others, Type II was predominantly present as in other studies.[16],[17],[18] In agreement with our result, Shyam et al., 2018, in New Delhi[17] and Priyadharshini et al., 2019,[19] found that lip patterns among females and males were not statistically significance. There was no statistically significant difference in gender in our study, as similar results were obtained by others,[7],[8],[9],[10],[11],[12],[13],[14],[15],[16],[17],[18],[19],[20] but disagreed with Koneru et al., 2013.[5] Due to the limitations of our study that did not include the sample from the eastern population and the small sample size, the result may come with an agreement with others regarding the association of lip print type and age.[13],[15],[21],[22] The study was conducted in the age group of 17–40 to make sure the appearance of lines and pattern of lips, complete maturity, and not loss by any factors.

Various studies have utilized quadrant-based recording, whereas few studies have utilized only the middle part of both lips. Our findings are similar to many studies in earlier literature and contradictory to few. The reason behind these variations may be due to lacking uniform procedure in obtaining lip prints or to the lack of universal classification in interpreting the lip prints Also, could be due to the effect of the genetic and hereditary factors. Variation in patterns of lip print will be attributed to the mode of development, lip muscles relaxed to produce a particular pattern, lip moisture difference, and continuity of lips with adjacent skin lines.[23]


  Conclusion Top


The most common type among a studied sample of Sudanese population was type 1'. There was no significant difference in lip prints between males and females or between age groups. Cheiloscopy is a relatively new field among the large number of identification tools available to the forensic expert. Work on this subject has already elicited useful information such as that lip prints are unique to an individual and can be used to fix the identity of a person that they remain stable over time. A large sample size and involvement of the Sudanese population from different regions is recommended.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

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Saraswathi TR, Mishra G, Ranganthan K. Study of lip prints. J forinsic Dent Sci 2009;1:28-32.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Castelló A, Alvarez-Seguí M, Verdú F. Luminous lip-prints as criminal evidence. Forensic Sci Int 2005;155:185-7.   Back to cited text no. 2
    
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Suzuki K, Tsuchihashi Y. New attempt of personal identification by means of lip print. J Indian Dent Assoc 1970;42:8-9.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
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Koneru A, Surekha R, Nellithady GS, Vanishree M, Ramesh D, Patil RS. Comparison of lip prints in two different populations of India: Reflections based on a preliminary examination. J Forensic Dent Sci 2013;5:11-15.   Back to cited text no. 5
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Verghese A, Somasekar M, Umesh R. Study of lip print type among the people of Kerala, J Indian Acad Forensic Med 2013;32:0971-097.   Back to cited text no. 6
    
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Walipeeran S, Kumar P, Abdalla K, Abdelkeder F, Azaruk A, Manipady S, et al. A study of lip print patterns among adults of Sebha City, Libia. J Foren Dent Sci 2015;7:67-70.   Back to cited text no. 7
    
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Kapoor N, Badiye A. A study of distribution, sex differences and stability of lip print patterns in an Indian population. Saudi J Biol Sci 2017;24:1149-54.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
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Šimović M, Pavušk I, Muhasilović S, Vodanović M. Morphologic patterns of lip prints in a sample of Croatian population. Acta Stomatol Croat 2016;50:122-7.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
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Sandhu SV, Bansal H, Monga P, Bhandari R. Study of lip print in Banjabi population. J Foren Dent Sci 2012;4:24-8.   Back to cited text no. 10
    
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Thermadam TP, Chatra L, Ahsan A. Cheiloscopy in gender determination: A study on 2112 individuals. J Family Med Prim Care 2020;9:1386-90.   Back to cited text no. 12
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Loganadan S, Dardjan M, Nani Murniati N, et al. Description of lip print patterns in children and their parents among Deuteron-Malaya population in Indonesia. Int J Dent 2019;6:1-6. doi.org/10.1155/2019/7629146.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
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Kenneth E, Emelda O, Obaje G, Chinedu U. Sexual Dimorphism in the Patterns of Lip Prints Among Students of Alex Ekwueme Federal University Ndufu-Alike Ikwo, Nigeria. Europ J Biomed Pharm Sci 2018;5:379-84.   Back to cited text no. 14
    
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Nadeem S, Manzoor G, Pervez S. Lip forensics; cheiloscopic pattern among population of Punjab, Pakistan. Prof Med J 2019;26:1177-82.   Back to cited text no. 15
    
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Shyam R, GuPta P, Anjum A, Vatchala Rani R. Cheiloscopy: A tool for gender identification. GJRA 2019;8:1-4.   Back to cited text no. 16
    
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Bai J, Prakash A, Reddy V, Rajinikanth M, Kumar Reddy V, Sreenath G. Correlative study on lip prints, fingerprints, and mandibular inter canine distance for gender determination. J Foren Dent Sci 2018;10:143-50.   Back to cited text no. 17
    
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Timsinha, S., & Kar, S. . A study on distribution and gender wise predilection of lip print pattern. Asian Journal of Medical Sciences, 2019;10:61-65. https://doi.org/10.3126/ajms.v10i4.23881  Back to cited text no. 18
    
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Priyadharshini KI, Ambika M, Sekar B, Mohanbabu V, Sabarinath B, Pavithra I. Comparison of cheiloscopy, odontometric, and facial index for sex determination in forensic dentistry. J Forensic Dent Sci 2018;10:88-91.   Back to cited text no. 19
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Mudaser A, Muhamed H, Haroon H, Yasir A, Sadia Z, Fouzia J, et al. Gender variation of lip prints among the students of Avicenna medical college, Lahore. Pakistan J Med Health Sci 2014;8:321.   Back to cited text no. 20
    
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Verma Y, Einstein A, Gondhalekar R, VermaA, George J, Gandra S, et al. Study of lip print and its reliability as a forensic tool. NatalJ Maxillofac Surg J 2015;6:25-30.  Back to cited text no. 21
    
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Sharma BS, Gupta V, Vij H, Sharma E, Tyagi N, Singh S. Cheiloscopy: A tool for antemortem identification. Indian J Dent Sci 2017;9:176-80.   Back to cited text no. 22
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Raj M, Sai K, Shankar A, Jud J, Jai S, Priyadarshini T. Lip print and gender identification. IOSR-DMS J 2016;15:112-5.  Back to cited text no. 23
    


    Figures

  [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4], [Figure 5], [Figure 6]



 

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