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Table of Contents
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2020  |  Volume : 7  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 61-64

Effect of delmopinol application on Candida albicans adherence on denture-bearing surface of heat-cured and cold-cured acrylic resins – An in vitro study


1 Lecturer, Department of Prosthodontics, Rural Dental College, PMT-PIMS, Loni, Maharashtra, India
2 Professor and Head, Department of Prosthodontics, Rural Dental College, PMT-PIMS, Loni, Maharashtra, India
3 Reader, Department of Prosthodontics, Government College of Dentistry, Indore, Madhya Pradesh, India
4 Reader, Department of Prosthodontics, Rural Dental College, PMT-PIMS, Loni, Maharashtra, India

Date of Submission30-Apr-2020
Date of Acceptance19-May-2020
Date of Web Publication24-Jul-2020

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Prabha Shakya Newaskar
Department of Prosthodontics, Rural Dental College, PMT.PIMS, Loni BK, Ahmednagar - 413 736, Maharashtra
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/INPC.INPC_12_20

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  Abstract 


Purpose: In this in vitro study, we evaluate the effect of delmopinol application on Candida albicans adherence on heat-cured acrylic resin and cold-cured acrylic resin.
Materials and Methods: A total of 60 specimens of every sort of acrylic resin were made, 20 specimens of each type were control group, 20 specimens were contaminated before delmopinol application, and 20 specimens were contaminated after delmopinol application. Each specimen in each tube was individually transferred to a spectrophotometer at 530 nm wavelength to measure the turbidity degree through the transmittance. Aliquots of 10 μl of every tube were then collected and inoculated into agar Sabouraud plates containing 500 mmol/l of sucrose, which was incubated for 24 h at 37°C, so as to see the microbial growth. Two-way ANOVA analysis of variance test and post hoc Turkey's test were carried out to ascertain the level of significance (P < 0.001) of various observations.
Conclusion: In case of contamination after delmopinol application, heat-cured acrylic resin showed a greater reduction in the adherence of C. albicans in this study.

Keywords: Candida albicans, cold-cured acrylic resin, delmopinol, denture-induced stomatitis, heat-cured acrylic resin


How to cite this article:
Newaskar PS, Palekar U, Sonkar T, Sonkeshariya S, Madanshetty P, Vikhe D. Effect of delmopinol application on Candida albicans adherence on denture-bearing surface of heat-cured and cold-cured acrylic resins – An in vitro study. Int J Prev Clin Dent Res 2020;7:61-4

How to cite this URL:
Newaskar PS, Palekar U, Sonkar T, Sonkeshariya S, Madanshetty P, Vikhe D. Effect of delmopinol application on Candida albicans adherence on denture-bearing surface of heat-cured and cold-cured acrylic resins – An in vitro study. Int J Prev Clin Dent Res [serial online] 2020 [cited 2020 Oct 24];7:61-4. Available from: https://www.ijpcdr.org/text.asp?2020/7/3/61/290695




  Introduction Top


The synthetic acrylic resins have an extended, clinically proven history of use in dentures, however, they are vulnerable to microbial adhesion, resulting in denture stomatitis. Denture-associated stomatitis may be a common candidal infection, which produces painful oral symptoms, also as a reservoir for infection at other sites of the body.[1]

The adherence of Candida albicans to solid surfaces like acrylic resin has been thought to be an important prerequisite for successful colonization and subsequent plaque formation and the development of pathogenesis.[2]

The management of Candida-associated denture stomatitis is complex due to its multifactorial etiology. Current treatment includes control of denture plaque, removal of dentures at night, use of antifungal,[3] antiseptic mouth rinses, denture soaks, removal of denture trauma, and microwave irradiation.[4]

Delmopinol is a tertiary amine surfactant that is used to counteract dental plaque formation and dissolves newly formed plaque. The adsorption of delmopinol is complex and strongly influenced by pH and concentration[5] and adsorbed on both hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces.[6]

There are only a couple of studies reported in the literature showing the effect of delmopinol on the deposition of plaque on natural teeth,[5],[6],[7],[8] but there is no study reported in the literature showing the effect of delmopinol on the deposition of plaque on the acrylic denture-fitting surface. Therefore, it is concerning haunted anin vitro study for evaluation and comparison of the effect of delmopinol application on heat-cured and cold-cured acrylic on C. albicans adherence.


  Materials and Methods Top


Preparation of acrylic resin specimens

Forty specimens of dimension 10 mm × 10 mm × 5 mm of each acrylic resin (heat-cured acrylic resin [Acralyn-H, Asian Acrylates, Mumbai, India] and cold-cured acrylic resin [DPI-RR Cold Cure, The Bombay Burmah Trading Corporation, Ltd., Mumbai, India]) were fabricated (total 120 specimens) and were removed after opening the flasks. Control group specimens were rinse with normal saline after contamination. No finishing and polishing procedure was done to simulate the tissue surface of a complete denture. Only remaining excess was removed with the aid of 320 grit wet sandpaper.

Microbiological test

Before the culture of C. albicans on the acrylic resin plate, all specimens are sterilized by immersion in 2% glutaraldehyde (PKS Pharma Pvt Ltd., Karnataka, India) for 30 min to prevent the contamination and placed in a sterilized container. The specimens were immersed in distilled water for 24 h (Hindustan Pharmaceuticals, Barauni, Bihar, India) to promote the maximum water sorption to prevent, when in culture, the occurrence of distortion and the release of residual monomer after polymerization. Pure culture of C. albicans was grown on agar Sabouraud plates (Himedia laboratory Pvt Ltd., Mumbai, India) containing 500 mmol/L of sucrose at 25°C. After 24 h, the colonies were suspended in tubes containing 5 ml of brain–heart infusion (BHI) broth (Himedia Laboratory Pvt Ltd., Mumbai, India). The cell suspension in each tube was adjusted spectrophotometrically at 800 nm (O. D. 800) to match the transmittance of 90 T (equivalent to 0.5 McFarland scale = 1.5 × 108 colony-forming units). The C. albicans (ACTT-10231) strain was obtained from the department of microbiology, Calcutta. Next, the specimens were placed into the tubes containing BHI plus inoculums and remained for 11 h at 37°C to favor initial colonization of the acrylic resin surfaces, and the colony count was calculated at this stage. Each specimen was first washed with saline (Hindustan Pharmaceuticals, Barauni, Bihar, India) after immersion in the contaminated culture broth. Saline excess was removed with gentle compression of sterile gauze. Then, the disinfection step was performed by the application of delmopinol (Sinclair Pharmaceuticals Limited, UK, marketed by Wockhardt Limited in India) for 48 h. Each specimen was then washed again with saline, and the excess was removed with sterile gauze. It was then transferred to individual tubes containing 5 ml of BHI broth. After 24 h of incubation, the tubes were individually transferred to a spectrophotometer at 530 nm wavelength to measure the turbidity degree [Table 1] through the transmittance. Aliquots of 10 μl of each tube were then collected and inoculated into agar Sabouraud plates containing 500 mmol/l of sucrose, which was incubated for 24 h at 37°C, to check the microbial growth. The purity of the positive cultures was confirmed by Gram staining and colony morphology on agar plates.
Table 1: Value of colony-forming units (×106/ml) obtained in all types of acrylic resin specimens

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  Results Top


Turbidity degree is inversely proportional to the C. albicans adherence to both types of acrylic resin surface. Two-way analysis of variance test and post hoc Tukey's test [Table 2] for materials were carried out to ascertain the level of significance (P < 0.001) of various observations.
Table 2: Two-way analysis of variance analysis and post hoc Tukey's test for material

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  Discussion Top


Although bacteria and other yeasts could be pathogens in some cases, it has been proven that C. albicans is the primary microbial factor in denture stomatitis. These yeasts are present in the saliva of a majority of denture wearers and display an affinity for adherence to acrylic resin.

The materials examined during this study were chosen owing to their relevance in prosthetic rehabilitation and their exposure to the oral microbiome in vivo. This study was a comparative evaluation of the effectiveness of delmopinol on C. albicans adherence on two sorts of acrylic resin: heat-cured and cold-cured acrylic resin. The results of the present study were according to the findings of Edgerton and Levine[9] that 0.2% delmopinol as a mouthwash reduces plaque on the natural teeth surface. Therefore, it can be concluded that adherence of C. albicans is less with the contamination after delmopinol application of the acrylic resin specimens as compared to the contamination before delmopinol application. These findings are often correlated with the finding of Eley[8] that delmopinol is actually a surfactant agent and has no antibacterial and antifungal effect. The mean of the turbidity degree of contamination before and after delmopinol application for heat-cured acrylic resin specimens was significantly more than cold-cured acrylic resin specimens, as said by Berger et al.[10] that surface roughness of cold-cured acrylic resin is greater than heat-cured acrylic resin, and therefore, the microbial adhesion correlates to its surface roughness (topography).[11] The adherence of microorganisms and debris is favored by rough or otherwise irregular surface topography.[12] Surface irregularities provide a rise in surface area and expansion within the number of niches not readily cleansed by the action of the tongue or other orofacial musculature. It has been shown that choosing an appropriate sort of smooth acrylic resin may lead to reduced biofilm formation.


  Conclusion Top


Following conclusions were drawn from thisin vitro study:

  1. Considering the material: Heat-cured acrylic resin showed the maximum reduction in the adherence of C. albicans followed by cold-cured acrylic resin
  2. Considering the application method: Contamination after delmopinol application showed the maximum reduction in the adherence of C. albicans when compared with contamination before delmopinol application.


Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

1.
Aguayo S, Marshall H, Pratten J, Bradshaw D, Brown JS, Porter SR, et al. Early adhesion of Candida albicans onto dental acrylic surfaces. J Dent Res 2017;96:917-23.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Yildirim MS, Hasanreisoglu U, Hasirci N, Sultan N. Adherence of Candida albicans to glow-discharge modified acrylic denture base polymers. J Oral Rehabil 2005;32:518-25.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Penhall B. Preventive measures to control further bone loss and soft tissue damage in denture wearing. Aust Dent J 1980;25:319-24.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Webb BC, Thomas CJ, Willcox MD, Harty DW, Knox KW. Candida-associated denture stomatitis. Aetiology and management: A review. Part 3. Treatment of oral candidosis. Aust Dent J 1998;43:244-9.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Svensson O, Halthur T, Sjödin T, Arnebrant T. Adsorption of delmopinol at the solid/liquid interface: The role of the acidbase equilibrium. J Colloid Interface Sci 2010;350:275-81.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Vassilakos N, Arnebrant T, Rundegren J.In vitro interactions of delmopinol hydrochloride with salivary films adsorbed at solid/liquid interfaces. Caries Res 1993;27:176-82.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Ellepola AN, Samaranayake LP. Adhesion of oral Candida albicans isolates to denture acrylic following limited exposure to antifungal agents. Arch Oral Biol 1998;43:999-1007.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Eley BM. Antibacterial agents in the control of supragingival plaque – A review. Br Dent J 1999;186:286-96.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Edgerton M, Levine MJ. Characterization of acquired denture pellicle from healthy and stomatitis patients. J Prosthet Dent 1992;68:683-91.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Berger JC, Driscoll CF, Romberg E, Luo Q, Thompson G. Surface roughness of denture base acrylic resins after processing and after polishing. J Prosthodont 2006;15:180-6.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Teughels W, Van Assche N, Sliepen I, Quirynen M. Effect of material characteristics and/or surface topography on biofilm development. Clin Oral Implan Res 2006;17:68-81.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Husham AM, Al-Bazirgan MH. Effect of air-particle abrasion on the retention and texture of the maxillary complete denture. Am J Dent 2006;19:115-22.  Back to cited text no. 12
    



 
 
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  [Table 1], [Table 2]



 

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