|Year : 2020 | Volume
| Issue : 3 | Page : 55-57
Effect of fluoride- and nonfluoride-remineralizing agents in white spot lesions in mentally retarded children: A parallel randomized clinical trial
Mayank Das1, L Vamsi Krishna Reddy2, Sanjay Singh3, Abhishek Kumar Dubey4, Avnica Agarwal1, Mandar Todkar5
1 Resident, Department of Public Health Dentistry, Sardar Patel PG Institute of Dental and Medical Sciences, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India
2 Professor and Head, Department of Public Health Dentistry, Sardar Patel PG Institute of Dental and Medical Sciences, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India
3 Reader, Department of Public Health Dentistry, Sardar Patel PG Institute of Dental and Medical Sciences, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India
4 Postgraduate Student, Department of Periodontology, Guru Nanak Institute of Dental Science and Research, Kolkata, West Bengal, India
5 Postgraduate Student, Department of Public Health Dentistry, Pacific Dental College and Hospital, Udaipur, Rajasthan, India
|Date of Submission||15-Jul-2020|
|Date of Acceptance||17-Aug-2020|
|Date of Web Publication||29-Sep-2020|
Dr. Mayank Das
Department of Public Health Dentistry, Sardar Patel PG Institute of Dental and Medical Sciences, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Background: Dental caries is one of the prevalent oral diseases among mentally retarded children, and restorative, preventive treatment needs are unmet.
Materials and Methods: The study was a double-blinded, parallel, randomized clinical trial. A total of 150 participants aged 7–12 years were selected. Unpaired t-test and repeated measures analysis of variance test were used for analysis.
Results: In Group A, at 12 months, 97.2% active and 2.8% inactive lesions were reported. In Group B, at 9 and 12 months, 98.6% and 94.3% active and 1.4% and 5.7% inactive white spot lesions (WSLs) were seen.
Conclusion: Fluoride- and nonfluoride-remineralizing agents reported a slight reduction in active WSLs.
Keywords: Children, clinical trial, dental caries, fluoride, remineralization
|How to cite this article:|
Das M, Krishna Reddy L V, Singh S, Dubey AK, Agarwal A, Todkar M. Effect of fluoride- and nonfluoride-remineralizing agents in white spot lesions in mentally retarded children: A parallel randomized clinical trial. Int J Prev Clin Dent Res 2020;7:55-7
|How to cite this URL:|
Das M, Krishna Reddy L V, Singh S, Dubey AK, Agarwal A, Todkar M. Effect of fluoride- and nonfluoride-remineralizing agents in white spot lesions in mentally retarded children: A parallel randomized clinical trial. Int J Prev Clin Dent Res [serial online] 2020 [cited 2020 Oct 24];7:55-7. Available from: https://www.ijpcdr.org/text.asp?2020/7/3/55/296541
| Background|| |
Tooth enamel comprises 90% substituted hydroxyapatite which is subjected to consecutive cycles of dissolution and recrystallization. White spot lesions (WSLs) are the first indication that the complex dynamic physicochemical processes that maintain healthy enamel have shifted in favor of demineralization. Fluoride in combination with calcium and phosphate ions creates a veneer of fluorapatite on the surface of existing enamel crystals, which acts as a replacement for minerals lost from the tooth structure. The possibility of stoppage of WSLs through their inactivation after the fluoride application, thereby excluding the need for invasive restorative treatment. Casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) complexes bind readily to the tooth surface and the bacterial plaque around the tooth and maintain a state of supersaturation inhibiting enamel demineralization and enhancing remineralization.,, Dental caries is the most prevalent disease among mentally retarded children worldwide, and dental treatment is the greatest unattended health need of these children., Although numerous studies have documented the oral health status of special care children, further research in this field is required. Therefore, the purpose of the study was to compare the effects of fluoride- and nonfluoride-remineralizing agents on WSLs.
| Materials and Methods|| |
The study was a double-blinded, parallel, randomized clinical trial with 1:1 allocation ratio for each group. It was conducted among 7–12-year-old mentally retarded children in Lucknow, Utter Pradesh, India. The duration of the study was 12 months (August 2017–August 2018). The participants included in the study were those who given the consent for the study, present on the day of examination, having intelligent quotient ranging mild-to-moderate, and having at least one active WSL on the labial surface of the permanent upper or lower anterior teeth. The excluded criteria were those who had dental caries in the form of small cavities or restorations in the teeth, any development enamel alterations or periodontal diseases, using orthodontic devices, under medical treatment or taking any kind of medicine, and any sensitivity to milk proteins. The ethical clearance was obtained from the institutional ethical committee (No. 931617/PHD/EC). A sample size of 136 was calculated using G power-version 184.108.40.206 developed by Faul et al., Germany. The groups with the interventions were Group A: fluoride varnish and Group B: GC Tooth Mousse. The measurement of the WSL dimension was done using a periodontal probe (PCP-UNC-15; Hu-Friedy Manufacturing Inc., Chicago, Illinois, USA). The WSL dimension (mean) was categorized as Category I (0.1–2 mm) and Category II (2.1–4 mm). Both groups' follow-up was done at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. Descriptive statistics, unpaired t-test, and repeated measures analysis of variance tests were used. The level of statistical significance was set at 0.05.
| Results|| |
Of 150 participants, the participants' drop rate was reported at around 6%. [Table 1] depicts that among Group A, WSL dimension Category I and II, there was no significant difference found. [Table 2] depicts that among Group B, WSL dimension Category I, there was no significant difference found. [Table 3] depicts that among Group A, 97.2% active and 2.8% inactive WSLs were seen at 12 months. [Table 4] depicts that in Group B, 98.6% and 94.3% active and 1.4% and 5.7% inactive WSLs were seen at 9 and 12 months, respectively.
|Table 1: Intragroup comparison of white spot lesions dimensions among Group A (n=75)|
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|Table 2: Intragroup comparison of white spot lesions dimensions among Group B (n=75)|
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|Table 3: Distribution of active and inactive white spot lesions among Group A (n=75)|
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|Table 4: Distribution of active and inactive white spot lesions among Group B (n=75)|
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| Discussion|| |
In the present study, in WSL dimension Category I of Group A, the mean scores decreased at 6, 9, and 12 months and there was no significant difference found between them. In the study done by Ferreira et al., among 7–12-year-old schoolchildren, three lesions showed no real change in the dimension measurements in millimeters. In this study, in WSL dimension Category II of Group A, there was a slight decrease in the scores at 6, 9, and 12 months reported and there was no significant difference found. In the study conducted by Memarpour et al., among 140 children aged 12–36 months with WSL in the anterior maxillary teeth, the interventions led to significant decrease in the size of the WSL. In the present study, in WSL dimension Category I of Group B, the mean score decreased after 3, 6, 9, and 12 months and there was no significant difference found. In the study conducted by Itaborahy et al., the mean WSL dimension reduction was higher in the fluoride-remineralization group, and the difference between groups was not statistically significant. In this study, in WSL dimension Category II of Group B, the mean score decreased after 3, 6, 9, and 12 months and there was no significant difference found. In the study done by Guclu et al., the majority of WSL in the control and fluoride varnish group exhibited no shift in appearance. In the present study, fluoride varnish showed a slight shift in the decrease of WSLs. The study conducted by Llena et al. among 6–14-year-old schoolchildren reported that ACP-CPP is not superior to fluoride varnish by any of the measures studied. In the study done by Beerens et al., among 54 participants with multiple WSLs were followed up for 3 months and the size of the WSL area did not change significantly over time among the participants. The present study underlined the considerable need for the prevention and treatment among mentally retarded children. The limitations of the present study were small sample size, and it can be done with long duration and follow-up.
| Conclusion|| |
The effect of fluoride- and nonfluoride-remineralizing agents has reported a slight reduction on WSLs among mentally retarded children.
Financial support and sponsorship
Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
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[Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4]