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   2019| January-March  | Volume 6 | Issue 1  
    Online since July 26, 2019

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Efficacy of acridine orange and papanicolaou stains in sex determination using barr bodies in buccal smears: A comparative study
Niloufa Z Aziz, B Ganesh Prasad, K Arathi, Frankantony P Britto, BV Chethan Aradhya, B Abdulrashid
January-March 2019, 6(1):7-10
Objective: Sex determination can be done by buccal epithelial cells in saliva traces found at a crime scene by examining the presence of Barr bodies in the nucleus of the epithelial cells. The present study aims to assess the efficacy of sex determination using Acridine Orange (AO) and Papanicolaou (PAP) stains for the detection of Barr bodies in buccal mucosal scrapings. Materials and Methods: Buccal scrapings from 120 healthy individuals (60 males and 60 females) were collected and were stained with AO and PAP stains. The analysis of fifty epithelial cells in each sample was done for the identification of Barr bodies. The presence of Barr bodies ≤ 5% in the sample was recorded as male and those with > 5% was recorded as female. Both stains were evaluated for percentage accuracy in determining sex. Results: In AO-stained slides, the percentage of Barr bodies ranged from 4 to 31 in females and from 0 to 9 in males, whereas with PAP the ranges recorded were 3–21 in females and 0–6 in males (P < 0.001). AO and PAP stains for detecting sex accurately, showed sensitivity and specificity of around 97.9% and 96.2%, respectively. Conclusion: Using Barr bodies in the buccal cells, providing up to 95%–98% accuracy, made it a considerable aid for sex determination. AO stain proved better than PAP stain for visualizing nuclear details with its remarkably shorter staining time and confirmed superior sex estimation efficiency compared to PAP stain.
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Different classification system for failures in tooth supported fixed partial denture: a systematic review
V Chandrakala, S Deepmala, G Srivatsa
January-March 2019, 6(1):17-20
Fixed prosthodontic treatment can offer exceptional satisfaction for both patient and dentist but failure may occur at any time right from diagnosis to treatment phase which can be frustrating. The dental literature is lacking in classification of failures in Fixed partial dentures. The cause may be that signs and symptoms of failures are varied and often complex and there is the additional problem of reaching a common interpretation among investigators on the definition of failure. When dealing with failed or failing fixed restorations, proper knowledge of diagnosis, assessment of the clinical condition and technical skills are absolutely necessary. Hence it is important to be aware of obvious and subtle indications of prosthesis failure and have a working knowledge of the procedure that are necessary to remember the situation. This review focusses on classification systems of failures associated with tooth supported fixed partial denture proposed by different authors.
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Evaluation and comparison of the effect of different chemical surface treatments (monomethyl methacrylate monomer, dichloromethane, and 1:1 v/v 30% trichloromethane and monomethyl methacrylate monomer solvent) on the shear bond strength of acrylic resin teeth to the heat cure denture base resin
Rupali Pathak, Rajneesh Kumar, Sonali Mahajan, Priya Singh, Devesh Tiwari, Prachi Deval
January-March 2019, 6(1):1-3
Background: Prefabricated acrylic resin teeth for dentures were started in use from 1940. About 26%–33% of denture repairs are the result of debonded teeth which cause distress and increased cost for patients. Taking into consideration the importance of properly bonded teeth to denture bases, this in-vitro study was designed to evaluate and compare the effects of three different chemicals on shear bond strength of cross-linked acrylic resin teeth with heat cure denture base resin. Methodology: This study was carried out in Government Dental College and Hospital, Mumbai, in collaboration with the Indian Institute of Technology, Powai. For the purpose of the study, 100 maxillary right central incisors, made up of heat cure cross-linked acrylic resin (MAARC) were collected. The wax samples were randomly divided according to systematic random sampling and coded into four groups of 25 samples each. The four groups were the control group, the monomethyl methacrylate group, the dichlormethane group and trichloroethane+ monomethyl methacrylate group. Results: The control group had lowest value for shear bond strength ranging from 117 N to 181 N with a mean of 147.8 N, whereas 1:1 mixture of v/v of 30% trichloromethane and monomethyl methacrylate had the highest value ranged from 145 N to 310 N with the mean value of 224.88 N. Among the chemical solvents used, monomethyl methacrylate had the lowest shear bond strength ranging from 120 N to 256 N with the mean value 187.32 N. Conclusion: The study concluded that chemical surface treatment of cross-linked acrylic teeth with 1:1 v/v 30% trichloromethane and monomethyl methacrylate monomer gave the highest strength.
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Efficacy of ozone therapy as an adjunct to scaling and root planing: A clinical and microbiological study
Neeharika Soorgani, Richa Agrawal, Himanshu Khashu, Sudheer Yada, Sameer Saxena, Lakshman Prasad
January-March 2019, 6(1):14-16
Introduction: Periodontitis is a multifactorial disease, of which bacterial plaque is the main cause for the initiation and progression of periodontitis. Elimination of bacterial colonization is the main objective of periodontal therapy. Scaling and root planing (SRP) has been the main treatment modality, but inaccessibility into deep pockets can leave residual deposits in the pocket resulting in recolonization pathogenic organisms in treated areas. This led to the use of antibacterial agents as subgingival irrigants as an adjunct to SRP. Ozone is known for its antimicrobial effect. Materials and Methods: Forty sites with probing pocket depth ≥6 mm were included in the study. The test sites were subjected to ozonized water subgingival irrigation, and control sites were subjected to subgingival irrigation 0.2% chlorhexidine. The clinical parameters were recorded initially and after 1 month along with microbiologic sampling. Results: Baseline values showed no statistically significant difference in any of the clinical parameters at the test and control sites. Value of P < 0.01 is considered as statistically significant. Gingival index, probing pocket depth, and clinical attachment level showed a statistically significant reduction after 4 weeks in both test and control sites. Conclusion: Ozonized water subgingival irrigation is effective in improving oral hygiene, reducing gingival inflammation, decreasing pocket depth, and increasing attachment levels when used as an adjunct to SRP in patients with chronic periodontitis.
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Tobacco use and oral health status among adolescents visiting patliputra medical college and hospital, Dhanbad
Animesh Kumar Shivam, Farrukh Azam, Rajarshi Bhushan
January-March 2019, 6(1):11-13
Introduction: Tobacco use is one of the main risk factors for a number of chronic diseases, including cardiovascular diseases, lung cancer, and oral cancer. Tobacco epidemic is one of the public health threats killing nearly six million people yearly. Tobacco use also contributes to poor oral health causing staining, bad breath, and tooth decay. Different studies in India are suggestive of upward trend in the use of tobacco even in adolescents. Objectives: The objectives of this study are to find the prevalence of tobacco use among adolescents in an urban slum and to assess the oral health status among them. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out as a part of oral health assessment camp conducted in an urban slum. All adolescents attending the camp were recruited in the study after due informed consent, the final sample size is 130. Results: The overall tobacco use among adolescents was found to be 95.8% adolescent boys and 27.6% among adolescent girls. The most common reasons cited for tobacco use were peer pressure followed by parent's influence. Smokeless tobacco (dry tobacco, lime, and gutkha) was consumed by 39.13% boys and 19% girls. Smoking was prevalent among 16.7% boys and 8.6% girls. However, 41.7% adolescent boys consumed both forms of tobacco. The prevalence of dental caries was high in both boys (77.7%) and girls (55.2%). The presence of tartar was found in 47.3% boys and 22.4% girls. Bleeding gums was found in more number of girls (29.3%) as compared to boys (25%). The other morbidities found on examination were ulcer (16.7% boys and 3.5% girls) and oral submucous fibrosis (27.8% boys and 3.5% girls). Conclusion: Appropriate intervention is required because adolescence is a tender period where these risk factors such as tobacco consumption and oral hygiene could be modified by awareness and counseling.
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Quantitative and qualitative analyses of chlorhexidine substantivity in obturated root dentin: An in vitro study
MV Aarthi, J Sreeja, K Madhavadas
January-March 2019, 6(1):4-6
Objectives: The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the substantivity of chlorhexidine (CHX) within the root canal system and to assess how long the CHX remains antimicrobially effective. Materials and Methods: Sixty freshly extracted intact human lower premolars with single root were collected, stored, and disinfected. The roots were divided randomly into two treatment groups: experimental (n = 30) and control (n = 30). Experimental samples (n = 30) were treated with 2% CHX and control samples (n = 30) were treated with sterile saline for 10 min. The samples were obturated with AH 26 sealer and gutta percha using lateral condensation technique. Each group was further randomly divided into three separate subgroups and stored in sterile saline for 1 week, 3 weeks, and 6 weeks. After the respective storage periods, all specimens were halved, and canal dentin was ground out with a peeso reamer. To determine whether the CHX from the dentin samples remained antimicrobial, the extracts from the experimental and control groups were mixed with the culture of Enterococcus faecalis. Results: Results were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and Duncan's multiple range test, which showed statistically significant difference between the control and experimental groups with ultraviolet spectrophotometer for all storage periods but only till 3 weeks with antimicrobial tests. Conclusion: It can be concluded from this study that CHX is retained in the root canal in antimicrobial effective amounts for up to 3 weeks.
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Complete esthetic rehabilitation of young patient with gingival pigmentation
Mamta Sharma, Chetan Pathak, Salil Pawah, Amit Gupta, Bhanu Madan, Neha Jain
January-March 2019, 6(1):24-27
Smile is an expression which can help people feel better. Smile can express a sense of affection, joy, happiness, kindness, and confidence. Dentistry is one such profession which deals with smile esthetics. Smile esthetics is a type of subjective evaluation. Few clinicians believe that smile harmony is determined by only the shape, position, and color of teeth. However, actually, gingival tissue also plays an important role in determining smile harmony. Visibility of periodontium depends on smile line which is the ratio between the upper lip and usually is convex in appearance. Excessive exposure of gums while smiling is referred to as gummy smile.
  298 51 -
Fracture of dental implants: An overview
Jimly James Kunjappu, Vinod Babu Mathew, M Mohammed Abdul Kader, Mohammed Saheer Kuruniyan, Ahamed Babiker Mohamed Ali, Shaheen Vilayil Shamsuddin
January-March 2019, 6(1):21-23
The use of dental implants for rehabilitating partial and total edentulous patients has promoted the function recovery of the stomatognathic system, in addition to preserving the dental structures, and providing longevity of the treatment. Due to the high success rates, the insertion of dental implants has become a knowable treatment solution for several patients. Implant fractures constitutes clear implant failures and in most of the cases, they require implant removal. The objective behind doing the present literature review was to analyze the causes of dental implant fractures and to describe the treatment options for these failures, aiming to help the clinicians to properly plan the implant-supported prosthesis treatment by considering important biomechanical aspects of this type of rehabilitation.
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