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  Most popular articles (Since October 12, 2018)

 
 
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REVIEW ARTICLES
Dental impression materials in prosthodontics: An overview for the general dentist
Musab Abu Arqoub, Tarek Rabi, Naji Ziad Arandi
July-September 2018, 5(3):21-23
DOI:10.4103/INPC.INPC_6_18  
Dental impression creation is the procedure of formulating a negative replica of the teeth and oral tissues, into which different die materials can be processed to create working analogs. Impression making is a routine procedure carried out at the start of any prosthodontic procedure. The accuracy and dimensional stability of impression materials are of paramount importance to the accuracy of fit of the resultant prosthesis. Hence, in the present review, we aim to highlight some of the important aspects of dental impression materials used in prosthodontics.
  1,540 194 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Curcumin gel and diode laser: A new duo in the treatment of chronic periodontitis
PL Ravishankar, Maharshi Malakar, Sunanda Rao, Priyankar Chakraborty, Nawab Aftab, Iqra Mushtaq
July-September 2018, 5(3):1-4
DOI:10.4103/INPC.INPC_7_18  
Introduction: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of SRP assisted by the two clinical treatment methods of diode laser or Curcumin Gel applications in comparison with SRP alone.. Materials and Method: This single-blind clinical trial, performed in a split mouth design, was conducted on 10 patients with moderate to severe chronic periodontitis. Following a baseline examination at first day which included the assessments of plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), and probing depth (PD); patients randomly received either SRP in one quadrant (control group), or SRP combined with Curcumin gel in another quadrant (experimental group). All cases were examined again, assessing PI, GI, and PD at baseline and 90th day. Presence of P. gingivalis was tested by PCR method. Results: In all patients, there was a significant improvement in the in GI and PD for both quadrants treated only with SRP or combination of SRP and Curcumin. However, experimental group presented significantly lower GI (P = 0.0001) and PD (P = 0.009) than the control group at the end of study period. Conclusion: This study revealed that local application of curcumin gel could be considered as an adjunctive treatment with scaling and root planning for chronic periodontitis.
  897 164 -
Comparative evaluation of microleakage of various glass-ionomer cements: An in vitro study
Divya Sahu, Rani Somani, B Vengal Rao, P Nagarjuna, Karteek Eshwara, P V. S Deepa Lakshmi
July-September 2018, 5(3):17-20
DOI:10.4103/INPC.INPC_8_18  
Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the microleakage of various glass-ionomer restorative materials. Materials and Methods: A sample size of 60 noncarious permanent teeth was taken for the study. Standardized Class V cavities were made on the buccal surface of the tooth. Samples were divided into three groups as follows: Groups 1, 2, and 3 containing 20 teeth in each group and restored with GC Fuji II, GC Fuji IX GP, and GC Fuji II LC, respectively. Samples were then subjected to thermocycling and later on immersed in methylene blue dye for microleakage assessment. The microleakage assessment was done using stereomicroscope (Leise company). Data collected were statistically analyzed. Results: GC Fuji II exhibited maximum microleakage, followed by GC Fuji IX GP and was minimum in GC Fuji II LC. Conclusion: GC Fuji II LC showed least microleakage and thus can be recommended as the restorative material of choice for pediatric patients.
  814 132 -
Association between clinical and subjective oral health status among schoolgoing children in South Bengaluru
BS Shakuntala, Manasi Pradeep Kulkarni, P Sirisha
July-September 2018, 5(3):10-13
DOI:10.4103/INPC.INPC_11_18  
Introduction: A number of self-report measures have been developed that assess the subjective health status such as dental neglect; dental anxiety and oral health related quality of life. Aim: To access the association between clinical and subjective oral health status among school going children in south Bangalore. Methods: 300 completed questionnaires designed to measure oral health indicators were collected from both children (6-10 yrs) and parents. Caries was assessed using dmft index. Result: Out of 300 children examined 55.3% - girls 44.7% - boys. Children with infrequent brushing had more caries. 28% of parents monitored their children while 42% brushed on their own. More than half of the parents and children thought it was necessary to visit dentist frequently and oral health would affect general health. Conclusion: In our study dental self-report items showed high level concordance between child and parents and was found to be clinically valid.
  791 115 -
Awareness and attitude of medical professionals toward periodontitis in diabetes mellitus patients: A questionnaire study
Sonu Peter, Richa Agrawal, Himanshu Khashu, Sudheer Yada, Ajay Chouksey, Manoj Tiwari
July-September 2018, 5(3):14-16
DOI:10.4103/INPC.INPC_10_18  
Introduction: There is developing evidence to support the two-way relationship between diabetes and periodontitis (PD), with diabetes increasing the threat for PD and periodontal inflammation negatively affecting glycemic control. Aim: The objective of this survey was to investigate the dental knowledge of medical doctors regarding PD being a complication of diabetes mellitus and their attitude toward timely referral of such patients to a dental practitioner. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire survey was carried out among medical physicians in all the medical colleges of Bhopal. The questionnaire included 16 questions, and the filled questionnaire was immediately collected and analyzed through SPSS software version 16 and Pearson's correlation test. Results: The present study found that medical practitioners in Bhopal hold a certain awareness about oral health, and that there is an association between periodontal health and diabetes; nevertheless, majority do not sustain the awareness of the nexus between the two. Conclusion: Educational programs can be included in medical and dental curricula to upsurge interprofessional education to enhance care for patients with diabetes and address their treatment needs.
  775 108 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
Diabetes mellitus, a myth in orthodontics?
Nipa Chauhan, Tilak Parikh, Sejal Patel, Aanal Shah, Pratik Pandya, Kinal Shah
July-September 2018, 5(3):24-28
DOI:10.4103/INPC.INPC_3_18  
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic disorder of carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism. Conventionally, orthodontic treatment was considered to be a treatment modality for healthy young people. However, with increasing patient awareness, the trend has changed with adults now seeking orthodontic treatment. Approximately, half of the patients with diabetes are not diagnosed and an oral examination may provide the first diagnosis of the disease, So that treating doctor must have a basic knowledge of the oral features of DM. Here, we will see clinical aspects of DM, its oral manifestations, and orthodontic treatment considerations.
  798 71 -
CASE REPORTS
Ingestion and management of posterior esthetic restorative crown in pediatric dental setup
Urvi Laherchand Shah, Rupinder Bhatia
July-September 2018, 5(3):29-33
DOI:10.4103/INPC.INPC_1_18  
Aim: Pediatric foreign body ingestion is a worldwide problem. Dental appliances, instruments, teeth ingestions is the second most reported phenomena. Case Description: This is a case report of a 4 year old female pediatric dental patient with ingestion of posterior aesthetic zirconia crown. Report includes its management and treatment. Also signs and symptoms of foreign body ingestion, their management and preventive protocols have been briefly discussed. Conclusion: Early recognition of swallowed foreign bodies and knowledge regarding the signs and symptoms associated related to pediatric dental patients is the key to avoid unforeseen events. Clinical Significance: Preventive protocol application and knowledge regarding foreign body aspiration and ingestion helps in providing better dental care and to avoid any negative consequences in this litigious era.
  761 81 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Comparison of effect of desensitizing agents on the retention of crowns cemented with resinomer cement: An in vitro study
Syed Ruby Syed Asadullah, Puroshuttam Rakhewar, Mohammed Adnan Mapkar
July-September 2018, 5(3):5-9
DOI:10.4103/INPC.INPC_4_18  
Introduction: Vital tooth preparation necessitates the application of desensitizing agents due to hypersensitivity that arises out of trauma. Many desensitizing agents are currently available in the market. One must, however, note that such an application creates a barrier between the tooth cement interfaces that may alter retention. This study investigates the same. Aim: The aim of this study was to compare the effect of two desensitizing agents on crown retention using resinomer cement. Materials and Methods: Thirty-three extracted human maxillary first premolar teeth were selected for the study, which was prepared using a special assembly and divided into three groups, i.e., (R + U, R + G, and R) to compare the effect of GLUMA and ULTRASEAL on crown retention using resinomer cement significant. Conclusion: The application of GLUMA desensitizing agent to resinomer cement resulted in an increase in retention that was statistically significant. ULTRASEAL is ill-suited to combine with resinomer cement.
  639 108 -
CASE REPORTS
Pemphigus vulgaris: Blistering mucocutaneous disease
Harshita Thakur, Sneha Satish, Sailaja Choudary, M Manjunath, TA Deepak
July-September 2018, 5(3):34-38
DOI:10.4103/INPC.INPC_2_18  
Pemphigus is a group of potentially fatal dermatoses with both cutaneous and oral manifestations characterized by the appearance of vesicle or bullae. Their manifestations in the oral cavity often precede those on the skin by many months or may remain as the only symptoms of the disease. Most patients could be initially misdiagnosed. Timely recognition and therapy of oral lesions are critical if treatment is instituted during this time, the disease is easier to control and the chance for early remission of the disorder is enhanced. Topical, systemic or intralesional corticosteroids are the treatment of choice for pemphigus vulgaris. Although the mortality has decreased to <10% since corticosteroids appeared, high doses, and prolonged treatment can cause side effects. They can be prescribed with different immunosuppressive therapy to reduce the cumulative dose of corticosteroids. Among the different immunosuppressive drugs, we find azathioprine, methotrexate, and cyclophosphamide and more recently mycophenolate mofetil.
  519 55 -
Ocular prosthesis: A case report
Mohit Bhatnagar, Leena Tomer, Arti , Wasim Hussain, Puneet Sharma, Giby M Markose
July-September 2018, 5(3):39-43
DOI:10.4103/INPC.INPC_5_18  
The human eye is one of the most important features of facial esthetics. The loss of an eye can have debilitating effects on the patient's physical, social, psychological, and overall mental attitude toward life. Loss of eye can be a result of enucleation, evisceration, or exenteration procedures to treat any underlying etiology. As a result, there is a dire need for an ocular prosthesis after the surgical procedures. Different materials and procedures can be used for the fabrication of an ocular prosthesis. This case report presents the fabrication of a semicustomized ocular prosthesis using a stock iris shell.
  482 57 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Comparative study of remineralization potential of three different remineralizing agents on demineralized enamel using light fluorescence and confocal fluorescence microscope: An in vitro study
Trishagni Chaudhury, S Ananthakrishna, R Veena Kumari, Sukhbir Kour, Aswathi Syam
October-December 2018, 5(4):45-49
DOI:10.4103/INPC.INPC_6_19  
Aim and Objective: The main objective of this in vitro study was to evaluate the comparative analysis of remineralization potential of three different materials – casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate with fluoride (CPP-ACPF), calcium sucrose phosphate (CaSP), and bioactive glass on demineralized enamel using light fluorescence microscopy and confocal laser scanning fluorescence microscopy. Materials and Methods: A total of 40 single-rooted maxillary and mandibular premolars were selected; 4 mm × 4 mm window was prepared on the buccal surfaces of the teeth, which was then subjected to demineralization for 96 h at 37°C. Teeth were randomly selected and divided into four study groups of 10 teeth each: Group 1 (artificial saliva), Group 2 (CPP-ACPF), Group 3 (bioactive glass), and Group 4 (CaSP). Each group was treated with respective remineralizing agents and sectioned with Struers Minitom diamond saw. Each section obtained was visualized under light fluorescence microscope for detection of remineralized and demineralized zones and also was visualized under confocal laser scanning fluorescent microscope for the quantification of demineralized and remineralized zones. Statistical Analysis: Statistical analysis was done using paired t-test, followed by one-way ANOVA, where P ≤ 0.05. Results: All the groups showed better statistically significant remineralization potential when compared to the control group, but among them Group 4, that is, Toothmin group showed the highest mean remineralized value, followed by Groups 3, 2, and 1, though the values were not statistically significant (P ≤ 0.05). Light fluorescence microscopy was an efficient diagnostic aid in detecting remineralization and demineralization. Conclusion: CaSP (Toothmin) has got the best remineralization potential when compared to other groups.
  386 54 -
A comparative evaluation of plastic and metal impression trays on the accuracy of cast
Jiji M Edakkalathur, Kurien Varghese, Sony Sebastian, Bilaal Sidhique Abubacker
October-December 2018, 5(4):53-56
DOI:10.4103/INPC.INPC_10_19  
Background: Defects in making an impression could affect the accuracy and fit of the final prostheses. Aims and Objectives: The present study evaluates whether the rigidity of impression trays made out of two different materials affect the accuracy of cast poured out of same impression material. Materials and Methods: For the present study, metallic perforated rim-lock tray and disposable plastic tray were selected for making the impression. Alginate (Tropicalgin™) was used as the impression material of choice. A master model constructed with stainless steel abutments at 44 and 47 and 34 and 37 region was used for making impressions using metal and plastic impression trays respectively. The cast was poured with type III dental stone and the distance between the reference points were measured using CMM (Coordinate Measuring Machine). The results obtained were compared and statistical analysis done using one sample t – test. Results: The study came out with results showing statistically significant differences (P < 0.05) between casts made out of these two different impression tray materials. Conclusions: The study concluded that rigidity of perforated metal stock trays ensured better results than perforated plastic stock trays for impressions using alginate impression material.
  349 44 -
Efficacy of acridine orange and papanicolaou stains in sex determination using barr bodies in buccal smears: A comparative study
Niloufa Z Aziz, B Ganesh Prasad, K Arathi, Frankantony P Britto, BV Chethan Aradhya, B Abdulrashid
January-March 2019, 6(1):7-10
DOI:10.4103/INPC.INPC_11_19  
Objective: Sex determination can be done by buccal epithelial cells in saliva traces found at a crime scene by examining the presence of Barr bodies in the nucleus of the epithelial cells. The present study aims to assess the efficacy of sex determination using Acridine Orange (AO) and Papanicolaou (PAP) stains for the detection of Barr bodies in buccal mucosal scrapings. Materials and Methods: Buccal scrapings from 120 healthy individuals (60 males and 60 females) were collected and were stained with AO and PAP stains. The analysis of fifty epithelial cells in each sample was done for the identification of Barr bodies. The presence of Barr bodies ≤ 5% in the sample was recorded as male and those with > 5% was recorded as female. Both stains were evaluated for percentage accuracy in determining sex. Results: In AO-stained slides, the percentage of Barr bodies ranged from 4 to 31 in females and from 0 to 9 in males, whereas with PAP the ranges recorded were 3–21 in females and 0–6 in males (P < 0.001). AO and PAP stains for detecting sex accurately, showed sensitivity and specificity of around 97.9% and 96.2%, respectively. Conclusion: Using Barr bodies in the buccal cells, providing up to 95%–98% accuracy, made it a considerable aid for sex determination. AO stain proved better than PAP stain for visualizing nuclear details with its remarkably shorter staining time and confirmed superior sex estimation efficiency compared to PAP stain.
  309 68 -
Appraisal of orthodontic brackets for Adhesive Remnant Index with and without primer: In vitro study
Ayub Khan, Sri Sujan Suryadevaraya, B Vengal Rao, Sweta Kattimani, Shaik Kamal Sha, Bindu V Bhaskar
October-December 2018, 5(4):68-70
DOI:10.4103/INPC.INPC_9_18  
Introduction: The elementary function of the primer is to boost the efficiency of the final bond. The secondary function is to protect the enamel from the ensuing demineralization by the acid-etching and to reduce marginal leakage. Primer computing is a step in the bonding procedure which necessitates increased chair time risk of moisture contamination and an increased procedural cost. Hence, the present study is intended to evaluate the Adhesive Remnant Index (ARI) for the site of bond failure. Methodology: Eighty extracted premolars procured from the department of orthodontics and private clinics divided into two groups with and without primer, after debonding the enamel surfaces, were examined under stereomicroscope of ×20 magnification for ARI, using the 4-point scale described by Artun and Bergland. Results: The frequency distribution of ARI with primer application showed statistically significant results. There were significant differences in debonded locations, between enamel-adhesive with primer and without primer. Conclusions: A conventional adhesive system with primers showed low ARI scores in comparison to adhesive system without primer.
  338 36 -
Knowledge, attitude, and practice of dentists toward patients with human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis B virus infections in Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India
Rajeev Ranjan, Rudra Joshi, Saurabh Pramanik, Chhaya Jha, Anirban Kundu, Diplina Barman
October-December 2018, 5(4):63-67
DOI:10.4103/INPC.INPC_7_19  
Background: During routine dental work, dentists and dental students can be exposed to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV). The aim of the present study was to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice of the dentists toward HIV- and HBV-infected patients in Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among dentists practicing in Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India, from December 2016 to April 2017. A total of 200 practitioners (89 males and 111 females) participated in the study. A pretested validated questionnaire related to the knowledge, attitude, and practices (knowledge – 17, attitude – 13, and practice – 17) of the dentists toward HIV- and HBV-infected patients was distributed among dental practitioners. Results: Almost 80% of the dental practitioners had existing fear and concern of the infection transmission from HIV and HBV patients, and this was the primary cause of refusal to treat these infected patients. Conclusion: The dentists did not have proper knowledge in the field of transmission of HIV and HBV infections. Fear and concern of being infected make them to refuse treating these patients. Therefore, training dentists to improve their attitudes toward the treatment of these patients is necessary.
  330 30 -
A comparative evaluation of maxillary canine retraction using flap and flapless corticotomy: A clinical study
Sarvesh P Agrawal, Shreya Iyengar, Udita A Thakkar, Reema Agrawal, Syed Mohammed Ali, Vinod Sargaiyan
October-December 2018, 5(4):57-59
DOI:10.4103/INPC.INPC_12_19  
Objective: The objective of this study is to compare and evaluate the effectiveness of maxillary canine retraction using flap and flapless corticotomy. Materials and Methods: A sample of 10 adult patients undergoing orthodontic treatment requiring therapeutic extraction of maxillary first premolars bilaterally were selected, compliant with the inclusion criteria. By random allocation, one site was selected for flap corticotomy-facilitated orthodontics (CFO) and opposite site for flapless CFO. After corticotomy procedure, maxillary canine retractions were done on both the sides using sliding mechanics. A paired t-test was used to determine the statistical significance of the difference in the amount of tooth movement between the flap and flapless sides. Results: There were statistically significant differences (P ≤ 0.01) in the rates of anteroposterior movement of the canines between the flap and flapless sides at all measurement times, and the rates of canine retraction were consistently higher in the flap side than in the flapless side. Conclusions: Flap corticotomy technique is more effective as compared to that of flapless corticotomy technique. Clinical Relevance: Flap corticotomy will be more effective clinically; however, the histologic correlation in regard to the changes in both the technique would be more beneficial.
  290 47 -
Prevalence of oral submucous fibrosis among habitual gutkha and areca nut chewers in Dhanbad district
Animesh Kumar Shivam, Farrukh Azam, Heena Sadiq
October-December 2018, 5(4):60-62
DOI:10.4103/INPC.INPC_5_19  
Objectives: To assess the incidence rate of oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) and its etiology in patients attending outpatient department at Patliputra Medical College and Hospital (PMCH), Dhanbad. Methodology: The diagnosis of OSMF was based on clinical examination and evaluating patient's signs and symptoms. Results: The total number of patients affected by OSMF in this time duration was 270. Of these, 232 (86%) were male, while 38 were female (14%). The greatest proportion of OSMF patients (58.58%) had a habit of chewing areca nut alone or in the form of gutkha. Conclusion: This study reveals that the incidence rate of OSMF in patients visiting PMCH, Dhanbad was 1%. Males were more affected than females. It was seen that the major etiological factors in the development of OSMF was areca nut and gutkha usage by the patients.
  286 35 -
Evaluation and comparison of the effect of different chemical surface treatments (monomethyl methacrylate monomer, dichloromethane, and 1:1 v/v 30% trichloromethane and monomethyl methacrylate monomer solvent) on the shear bond strength of acrylic resin teeth to the heat cure denture base resin
Rupali Pathak, Rajneesh Kumar, Sonali Mahajan, Priya Singh, Devesh Tiwari, Prachi Deval
January-March 2019, 6(1):1-3
DOI:10.4103/INPC.INPC_17_19  
Background: Prefabricated acrylic resin teeth for dentures were started in use from 1940. About 26%–33% of denture repairs are the result of debonded teeth which cause distress and increased cost for patients. Taking into consideration the importance of properly bonded teeth to denture bases, this in-vitro study was designed to evaluate and compare the effects of three different chemicals on shear bond strength of cross-linked acrylic resin teeth with heat cure denture base resin. Methodology: This study was carried out in Government Dental College and Hospital, Mumbai, in collaboration with the Indian Institute of Technology, Powai. For the purpose of the study, 100 maxillary right central incisors, made up of heat cure cross-linked acrylic resin (MAARC) were collected. The wax samples were randomly divided according to systematic random sampling and coded into four groups of 25 samples each. The four groups were the control group, the monomethyl methacrylate group, the dichlormethane group and trichloroethane+ monomethyl methacrylate group. Results: The control group had lowest value for shear bond strength ranging from 117 N to 181 N with a mean of 147.8 N, whereas 1:1 mixture of v/v of 30% trichloromethane and monomethyl methacrylate had the highest value ranged from 145 N to 310 N with the mean value of 224.88 N. Among the chemical solvents used, monomethyl methacrylate had the lowest shear bond strength ranging from 120 N to 256 N with the mean value 187.32 N. Conclusion: The study concluded that chemical surface treatment of cross-linked acrylic teeth with 1:1 v/v 30% trichloromethane and monomethyl methacrylate monomer gave the highest strength.
  264 55 -
A clinical study of incidence, etiology, and pattern of mandibular fractures in K. R. Hospital, Mysore
S Sandeep Tejaswi, TS Subash
October-December 2018, 5(4):50-52
DOI:10.4103/INPC.INPC_14_19  
Introduction: The mandible is the second-most common fractured part of the maxillofacial region after the nasal bone. The incidences, etiology, and pattern of mandibular fractures vary considerably among the different population; there is a need to evaluate aspects of mandibular fracture in Mysore. The main causes of mandible fractures in this study are road traffic accident (RTA), assault, fall, sports-related injuries, and industrial trauma. Materials and Methods: A total of 50 patients records were taken from MLC books who sustained mandibular fracture presenting to the Department of Dentistry, K.R. Hospital from January 2016 to December 2016. A standardized maxillofacial trauma pro forma was used to record the data in relation to age, gender, etiology, and anatomical site. The mandibular fractures were classified based on the anatomical sites such as symphysis, parasymphysis, body, angle, ramus, condyle, coronoid, and dentoalveolar process. Patients were divided into the following age group of <10 years, 11–20 years, 21–30 years, 31–40 years, 41–50 years, and 50 years and above; data were obtained and analyzed using simple descriptive statistical analysis and Pearson's Chi-squared test. Results: A total of 50 patients with 70 fractures were analyzed for the study, in which 32 were male (64%) and 18 (36%) were female. The patients ranged from <10 years to 50 years. The highest prevalence of fracture occurred in the age group of 21–30 (33.3%) years followed by age group of 50 years and above (28.6%). Mandibular fractures are predominantly caused by RTA which consisted of (16/50, 32%). The second-most common was fall (13/50, 26%), followed by assault (10/50, 20%), sports (8/50, 16%), and industrial trauma (3/50, 6%). RTA was the main cause in the age group of 31–40 years. Fall was the second cause in the age group of 40–50 years and above. RTA remains the predominant cause of mandibular fracture in the age group of 31–40 years in this study. Conclusion: Among 70 fracture sites located in this study, sites which fracture were seen was parasymphysis 31.42%, followed by angle 20%, condyle 18.57%, symphysis and dentoalveolar 8.57%, body 7.14%, ramus 4.28%, and the least was coronoid 1.42%. The parasymphysis is the most common site of fracture in this study similar to the other previous studies. In cases with unilateral fractures, parasymphysis was the most common 33.33%, followed by the angle of 19.60%. The most common combination was parasymphysis and condyle.
  271 36 -
Chitosan hydrogel: Its applications in medicine and dentistry
Guljot Singh, Umang Jamwal
October-December 2018, 5(4):71-76
DOI:10.4103/INPC.INPC_2_19  
Since times immemorial, there has been an interactive interdependence of man on nature. The world of technology has overpowered him, yet technology and nature go hand in hand to help mankind fulfill his day-to-day necessities. The developing civilization has once again led to a quest to turn to nature in search for materials that are ecofriendly and economical. Chitosan is one such polymer. The combination of properties of chitosan such as biocompatibility, biodegradability, nontoxicity, and antibacterial properties open many possibilities for its application in medicine and dentistry. This article overviews the applications of chitosan in the form of hydrogels that can be applied effectively and give promising results for target delivery of drugs, the reduction of toxicity, and its uses focused towards the advancement of dentistry.
  264 39 -
Tobacco use and oral health status among adolescents visiting patliputra medical college and hospital, Dhanbad
Animesh Kumar Shivam, Farrukh Azam, Rajarshi Bhushan
January-March 2019, 6(1):11-13
DOI:10.4103/INPC.INPC_25_19  
Introduction: Tobacco use is one of the main risk factors for a number of chronic diseases, including cardiovascular diseases, lung cancer, and oral cancer. Tobacco epidemic is one of the public health threats killing nearly six million people yearly. Tobacco use also contributes to poor oral health causing staining, bad breath, and tooth decay. Different studies in India are suggestive of upward trend in the use of tobacco even in adolescents. Objectives: The objectives of this study are to find the prevalence of tobacco use among adolescents in an urban slum and to assess the oral health status among them. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out as a part of oral health assessment camp conducted in an urban slum. All adolescents attending the camp were recruited in the study after due informed consent, the final sample size is 130. Results: The overall tobacco use among adolescents was found to be 95.8% adolescent boys and 27.6% among adolescent girls. The most common reasons cited for tobacco use were peer pressure followed by parent's influence. Smokeless tobacco (dry tobacco, lime, and gutkha) was consumed by 39.13% boys and 19% girls. Smoking was prevalent among 16.7% boys and 8.6% girls. However, 41.7% adolescent boys consumed both forms of tobacco. The prevalence of dental caries was high in both boys (77.7%) and girls (55.2%). The presence of tartar was found in 47.3% boys and 22.4% girls. Bleeding gums was found in more number of girls (29.3%) as compared to boys (25%). The other morbidities found on examination were ulcer (16.7% boys and 3.5% girls) and oral submucous fibrosis (27.8% boys and 3.5% girls). Conclusion: Appropriate intervention is required because adolescence is a tender period where these risk factors such as tobacco consumption and oral hygiene could be modified by awareness and counseling.
  226 41 -
CASE REPORTS
Software-guided predictable endodontic management of three-rooted lower right second premolar
Purnil B Shah, Nili Shah, Pratik Kariya
October-December 2018, 5(4):81-83
DOI:10.4103/INPC.INPC_9_19  
It is essential in endodontics to understand the morphological anatomy of the roots and root canal systems of the teeth to increase the success rate of root canal therapy. Advanced diagnostic imaging modalities like cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and the assistive software like three-dimensional (3D) Endo Software (by Dentsply Sirona) are very helpful aids in understanding the anatomy of the teeth, especially the complicated premolars. Most commonly mandibular first and second premolars have a single root and root canal system. However, multiple roots and canals have also been reported in few cases which are considered as a challenging task for an endodontist. The present case report discusses the complete endodontic management of a three-rooted mandibular second premolar using CBCT imaging and assistive guidance by 3D Endo Software (by Dentsply Sirona).
  226 29 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Quantitative and qualitative analyses of chlorhexidine substantivity in obturated root dentin: An in vitro study
MV Aarthi, J Sreeja, K Madhavadas
January-March 2019, 6(1):4-6
DOI:10.4103/INPC.INPC_24_19  
Objectives: The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the substantivity of chlorhexidine (CHX) within the root canal system and to assess how long the CHX remains antimicrobially effective. Materials and Methods: Sixty freshly extracted intact human lower premolars with single root were collected, stored, and disinfected. The roots were divided randomly into two treatment groups: experimental (n = 30) and control (n = 30). Experimental samples (n = 30) were treated with 2% CHX and control samples (n = 30) were treated with sterile saline for 10 min. The samples were obturated with AH 26 sealer and gutta percha using lateral condensation technique. Each group was further randomly divided into three separate subgroups and stored in sterile saline for 1 week, 3 weeks, and 6 weeks. After the respective storage periods, all specimens were halved, and canal dentin was ground out with a peeso reamer. To determine whether the CHX from the dentin samples remained antimicrobial, the extracts from the experimental and control groups were mixed with the culture of Enterococcus faecalis. Results: Results were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and Duncan's multiple range test, which showed statistically significant difference between the control and experimental groups with ultraviolet spectrophotometer for all storage periods but only till 3 weeks with antimicrobial tests. Conclusion: It can be concluded from this study that CHX is retained in the root canal in antimicrobial effective amounts for up to 3 weeks.
  213 42 -
Efficacy of ozone therapy as an adjunct to scaling and root planing: A clinical and microbiological study
Neeharika Soorgani, Richa Agrawal, Himanshu Khashu, Sudheer Yada, Sameer Saxena, Lakshman Prasad
January-March 2019, 6(1):14-16
DOI:10.4103/INPC.INPC_26_19  
Introduction: Periodontitis is a multifactorial disease, of which bacterial plaque is the main cause for the initiation and progression of periodontitis. Elimination of bacterial colonization is the main objective of periodontal therapy. Scaling and root planing (SRP) has been the main treatment modality, but inaccessibility into deep pockets can leave residual deposits in the pocket resulting in recolonization pathogenic organisms in treated areas. This led to the use of antibacterial agents as subgingival irrigants as an adjunct to SRP. Ozone is known for its antimicrobial effect. Materials and Methods: Forty sites with probing pocket depth ≥6 mm were included in the study. The test sites were subjected to ozonized water subgingival irrigation, and control sites were subjected to subgingival irrigation 0.2% chlorhexidine. The clinical parameters were recorded initially and after 1 month along with microbiologic sampling. Results: Baseline values showed no statistically significant difference in any of the clinical parameters at the test and control sites. Value of P < 0.01 is considered as statistically significant. Gingival index, probing pocket depth, and clinical attachment level showed a statistically significant reduction after 4 weeks in both test and control sites. Conclusion: Ozonized water subgingival irrigation is effective in improving oral hygiene, reducing gingival inflammation, decreasing pocket depth, and increasing attachment levels when used as an adjunct to SRP in patients with chronic periodontitis.
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Effects of chronic periodontitis in serum ferritin levels before and 1 month after nonsurgical periodontal therapy: An intervention study
N Thounaojam
April-June 2019, 6(2):32-34
DOI:10.4103/INPC.INPC_29_19  
Introduction: Elevated serum ferritin levels may be associated with chronic periodontitis (CP), and change in serum ferritin levels may be reflected in response to periodontal therapy. The aim of the present study is to identify the causal relationship if any between CP and serum ferritin levels. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 patients in the age group of 25–60 years were recruited from the Outpatient Department of Periodontics, Sri Siddhartha Dental College and Hospital Agalakote, Tumkur. Along with all the clinical parameters, each patient's blood was collected for in vitro assessment of serum ferritin levels at baseline and 1 month after nonsurgical periodontal therapy. Results: The mean reduction in serum ferritin levels from baseline and 1 month after nonsurgical periodontal treatment in CP patients was statistically highly significant. On comparison between normal healthy individuals, the mean difference in serum ferritin levels in CP patients was statistically highly significant. Conclusion: With the result obtained, serum ferritin levels can be used as a biomarker in evaluating the effectiveness of periodontal therapy. More interventional studies with larger sample size and long-term studies are needed to evaluate serum ferritin levels can be used as a biomarker for CP patients.
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