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Table of Contents
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2019  |  Volume : 6  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 80-82

Oral health status of hearing impaired individuals in a school in Vashi, Navi Mumbai


1 Reader, Department of Public Health Dentistry, MGM Dental College and Hospital, Navi Mumbai, Maharashtra, India
2 Reader, Department of Periodontics, MGM Dental College and Hospital, Navi Mumbai, Maharashtra, India
3 Reader, Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Bharati Vidyapeeth Dental College and Hospital, Navi Mumbai, Maharashtra, India

Date of Submission02-Dec-2019
Date of Acceptance10-Dec-2019
Date of Web Publication03-Jan-2020

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Deeksha Kiran Shetty
Department of Public Health Dentistry, MGM Dental College and Hospital, Navi Mumbai, Maharashtra
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/INPC.INPC_60_19

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  Abstract 


Objective: The purpose of this study is to determine the oral health status along with child's access, provider's attitude and parental knowledge towards oral care and barriers to dental care of differently abled children attending a school in Vashi, Navi Mumbai.
Methodology: Dental caries was assessed using Dentition Status and Treatment Needs Index (1997) as per WHO criteria. Oral hygiene was assessed using Simplified Oral Hygiene Index. Eighty participants between 3-18 years of age. with hearing disability participated in the study.
Results: The DMFT score in was 1.86+/-2.54.The mean oral hygiene score was 1.27+-1.04 showing that the oral hygiene was good. Dental trauma was minimal among these children.
Conclusion: In conclusion, encouraging and promoting parents of these children to improve their oral health and developing innovative methods to improve communication between the hearing impaired and health care professional is of utmost importance.

Keywords: Dental caries, dental trauma, hearing impaired, oral hygiene


How to cite this article:
Shetty DK, Gupta B, Patil A, Mali S. Oral health status of hearing impaired individuals in a school in Vashi, Navi Mumbai. Int J Prev Clin Dent Res 2019;6:80-2

How to cite this URL:
Shetty DK, Gupta B, Patil A, Mali S. Oral health status of hearing impaired individuals in a school in Vashi, Navi Mumbai. Int J Prev Clin Dent Res [serial online] 2019 [cited 2020 Jan 19];6:80-2. Available from: http://www.ijpcdr.org/text.asp?2019/6/4/80/274678




  Introduction Top


Oral health is a key component of general health. Unfortunately, oral health care is one of the most neglected needs of the disabled people. Hearing impairment can be classified as deaf and hard of hearing. In India, about 0.4% of 1065.40 million children are hearing impaired. The hearing-impaired people can only communicate through sign language. Their impairment proves to be a severe disadvantage when it comes to communicating with health personnel. Due to communication gap, medical and dental health is often neglected in these individuals.[1],[2] Jain et al. in their study reported higher mean number of decayed teeth in children between 9 and 17 years of age with hearing difficulties in India.[3] The purpose of this study is to determine the oral health status along with child's access, provider's attitude, and parental knowledge toward oral care and barriers to dental care of hearing impaired Individuals attending a school in Vashi, Navi Mumbai.


  Methodology Top


The cross-sectional study was conducted among individuals attending a center for differently abled in Vashi, Navi Mumbai. Permissions needed to conduct study were obtained from concerned authority. All children from the school were included for the assessment. Only those children who gave their consent were included for the study. Subjects absent during the visit and uncooperative on the day of examination were excluded. Eighty participants between 3 and 18 years of age with hearing disability were included in the study. Informed consent was obtained from the participants' parents. A structured questionnaire was used for the study. Dental examination was done using a mouth mirror, a community periodontal index of treatment needs probe, and an explorer. Dental caries was assessed using dentition status and treatment needs index (1997) as per the WHO criteria. Oral hygiene was assessed using simplified oral hygiene index. Data analysis was done using Windows-based “MedCalc Statistical Software” version 18.2.1 (MedCalc Software bvba, Ostend, Belgium; http://www.medcalc.org; 2018). Parametric data are expressed as means with standard deviation at 95% confidence intervals.


  Results Top


[Table 1] reveals the population distribution. Results on child's access to dental care and provider's attitude/knowledge of special children revealed that 98% of the participants never visited a dentist. Only 2.5% visited dentist for a regular checkup. 38.8% believed that oral health is an important part of general health. All the participants brushed their teeth regularly. Ninety-eight percent of the people did not encounter any problems during dental care. Fear for dental treatment (1%) and finding a dentist near them (3.8%) were the major barriers. Fifty percent of the children had in between snacking, but more than 50% revealed that their diet was primarily solid. Oral hygiene index revealed that 58.3% of the individuals had good oral hygiene and 6.7% had poor oral hygiene.
Table 1: Demographic details of study participants with hearing disability

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[Table 2] describes the mean oral hygiene score was 1.27 ± 1.04, showing good oral hygiene. The value for mean number of decayed teeth was 1.86 ± 2.54. The study results revealed that 1.3% of the individuals had visited the dentist in the past. 38.8% of the individuals felt that oral health is not an important part of overall health.
Table 2: Oral hygiene index-simplified scores and number of decayed teeth in hearing impaired children

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  Discussion Top


This study aimed to explore oral health and oral health-related behaviors among hearing-impaired students. A study done in a special school for the deaf at Bhimavaram, India, showed that caries prevalence in the sample was found to be 65% with a mean decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT) score of 1.6 ± 1.3 in Group I (6–8 years), 1.9 ± 1.2 in Group II (9–12 years), and 2.2 ± 1.2 in Group III (13–16 years) and 91.7% of the total children examined needed dental treatment. Hence, dental education and awareness programs should be provided. The study opined that visual oral health education program was effective. The study conducted by Avasthi K et al. reported contrary results that the dental caries prevalence was 72.43%. A study conducted in Karad city, India, revealed that largest component of DMFT/dmft was the decayed component, with a mean score of 2.83 ± 0.94. The mean oral hygiene score among participants in the present study was 1.27 ± 1.04, showing that the oral hygiene was good. A study by Snivkumar et al. to assess oral hygiene showed that the mean simplified oral hygiene index (OHI-S) score among the hearing- and speech-impaired children was found to be 1.63 ± 0.84. A study done by Vichayanrat showed that oral hygiene levels were not significantly different between the normal and hearing-impaired students (P = 0.365). Poor oral hygiene was found to be 51.8% in hearing-impaired students. Oral hygiene levels were significantly associated with caries status (P = 0.001).[4],[5],[6] A study reported that the mean OHI-S score of the study subjects was 1.45 ± 1.01.[7] Nayak et al. in their study revealed that speech- and hearing-impaired children experienced lowest trauma (18%).[8] Direct comparisons between these studies and the present study cannot be made; however, all these studies signify the importance of oral health of individuals with hearing impairment. The fewer rates of poor oral hygiene in these children can be attributed to better health care access of the children in urban areas such as Navi Mumbai compared to remote areas. In conclusion, there is a distinct need for strengthening organized preventive and curative oral care programs for the differently abled children. There is a high need for conducting multicenter surveys to assess the burden of disease followed by the comprehensive dental care programs for children with hearing and speech disability. Encouraging and promoting parents of these children to improve their oral health are important. Innovative methods to improve communication between the hearing-impaired children and health personnel are needed for better oral health.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

1.
Joint Committee on Infant Hearing, American Academy of Audiology, American Academy of Pediatrics, American Speech-Language-Hearing Association, Directors of Speech and Hearing Programs in State Health and Welfare Agencies. Year 2000 position statement: Principles and guidelines for early hearing detection and intervention programs. Joint Committee on Infant Hearing, American Academy of Audiology, American Academy of Pediatrics, American Speech-Language-Hearing Association, and Directors of Speech and Hearing Programs in State Health and Welfare Agencies. Pediatrics 2000;106:798-817.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Oredugba FA. Oral health care knowledge and practices of a group of deaf adolescents in Lagos, Nigeria. J Public Health Dent 2004;64:118-20.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Jain M, Mathur A, Kumar S, Dagli RJ, Duraiswamy P, Kulkarni S. Dentition status and treatment needs among children with impaired hearing attending a special school for the deaf and mute in Udaipur, India. J Oral Sci 2008;50:161-5.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Suma G, Das UM, Akshatha BS. Dentition status and oral health practice among Hearing and speech-impaired children: A cross-sectional study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2011;4:105-8.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Nagaraja Rao G. Oral health status of certified school children of Mysore state--a report. J Indian Dent Assoc 1985;57:61-4.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Ajami BA, Shabzendedar M, Rezay YA, Asgary M. Dental treatment needs of children with disabilities. J Dent Res Dent Clin Dent Prospects 2007;1:93-8.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Azfar M, Khan I, Qureshi S, Zia N, Abid K. Oral Health Status Among Hearing and Speech Impaired Children of Karachi, Pakistan. JPDA. 2008:27.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Nayak PP, Kakarla PV, Shetty PJ, Bhat MY. Dental trauma prevalence and disability types: A comparative study among children and adolescents in Dharwad, India. J Indian Assoc Public Health Dentistry 2019;1:93-8.  Back to cited text no. 8
    



 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2]



 

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