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Table of Contents
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2019  |  Volume : 6  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 76-79

Effectiveness of health education on knowledge about tobacco use among police personnel in Haldia city, West Bengal: An interventional study


1 Sr. Lecturer, Department of Public Health Dentistry, Hazaribag College of Dental Sciences and Hospital, Hazaribag, Jharkhand, India
2 Sr. Lecturer, Department of Pediatric and Preventive Dentistry, Hazaribag College of Dental Sciences and Hospital, Hazaribag, Jharkhand, India
3 Sr. Lecturer, Department of Prosthodontics, Hazaribag College of Dental Sciences and Hospital, Hazaribag, Jharkhand, India
4 Professor and Head, Department of Public Health Dentistry, Hazaribag College of Dental Sciences and Hospital, Hazaribag, Jharkhand, India

Date of Submission14-Nov-2019
Date of Acceptance24-Nov-2019
Date of Web Publication03-Jan-2020

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Silpi Chatterjee
Department of Public Health Dentistry, Hazaribag College of Dental Sciences and Hospital, Demotand, Hazaribag - 825 301, Jharkhand
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/INPC.INPC_58_19

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  Abstract 


Aim: To assess the effectiveness of health education on knowledge about tobacco use among police personnel in Haldia City, West Bengal.
Objectives: 1. To assess the existing knowledge about tobacco use among police personnel in Haldia City. 2. To assess the effectiveness of health education on knowledge about tobacco use among police personnel in Haldia City.
Materials and Methods: The present study was an interventional study. The study was conducted over a period of 1 month among police personnel in Haldia city. At baseline a pretested questionnaire was given to the police personnel about the knowledge on tobacco use. After they completed the questionnaire Health Education on tobacco use was given to the participants. After 1 week the same questionnaire was given to the police personnel to assess the changes in the knowledge about tobacco use in them.
Results: There was a significant difference found in the knowledge on tobacco use among the police personnel in the pre and post intervention.

Keywords: Health education, police personnel, tobacco


How to cite this article:
Chatterjee S, Kumari A, Tiwari S, Shankar D, Saxena S. Effectiveness of health education on knowledge about tobacco use among police personnel in Haldia city, West Bengal: An interventional study. Int J Prev Clin Dent Res 2019;6:76-9

How to cite this URL:
Chatterjee S, Kumari A, Tiwari S, Shankar D, Saxena S. Effectiveness of health education on knowledge about tobacco use among police personnel in Haldia city, West Bengal: An interventional study. Int J Prev Clin Dent Res [serial online] 2019 [cited 2020 Aug 5];6:76-9. Available from: http://www.ijpcdr.org/text.asp?2019/6/4/76/274677




  Introduction Top


Tobacco use is one of the important preventable causes of death and a leading public health problem all over the world. One person in every six is killed due to tobacco among adults worldwide which amounts to more than five million people a year. In the low-income countries, due to steady population growth coupled with tobacco industry targeting and ensuring that millions of people become fatally addicted each year, the tobacco use is growing fastest. More than 80% of the world's tobacco-related deaths are estimated to be in low- and middle-income countries by 2030.[1] In India, the current data of Global Adult Tobacco Survey show that there are 14% of the adults, 24.3% males and 2.9% females are smokers, and about five in ten current smokers (46.6%) plan to quit. Oral health is an integral part of general health and is one of the determinants of quality of life. A major role is played by the occupational environment on the health of the exposed. The health hazards get more severe with the difficulty of job. This fact is more important in situations as faced by the police personnel who provide continuous service to the civilians. Policing is a complex occupation. Owing to the complexity of policing, risks and exposures may vary within forces, between forces, and internationally. Officers' involvement ranges from general, daily, proactive patrol activities to specific criminal activities, such as narcotic investigations. Because there is such a wide range of activities involved in police work, there are many health and safety issues surrounding policing as an occupation.[2] It is essential to prevent oral diseases and promote oral health for this special group of population. The failure to identify and solve health concerns of officers has potentially serious consequences, as police officer's fatigue reduces contribution of policing the community. No epidemiological data have been reported on existing knowledge about tobacco use among police personnel in Haldia city, West Bengal. This information is important for establishing priorities and determining the type and quantity of prevention and treatment services required, as well as the type of personnel required to provide them. Keeping this in mind, this study was undertaken to assess the effectiveness of health education on knowledge about tobacco use among police personnel in Haldia city, West Bengal.


  Materials and Methods Top


The present study is a questionnaire-based, interventional study with an objective to know the effectiveness of health education on knowledge about tobacco use among police personnel. All the police personnel working in nine police stations of Haldia city were included in the study [Figure 1]. The study was conducted over a period of 1 month. The ethical clearance was obtained from the Ethical Committee Review Board of The Haldia Institute of Dental Science and Research, West Bengal, before the start of the study; all the police personnel were included in the study who were present when the study was conducted. Permission was taken from the subdivisional officer for conducting the study on all the police personnel in all the police stations under the subdivision Haldia. Only male participants were included. Police personnel who were consuming tobacco for a minimum of 6 months were included. Police personnel who were consuming tobacco (any form) for minimum of 3–4 times per day were included. Tobacco consumers with other drug dependency were excluded. Smokers who were under those medications which may interfere with this intervention were also excluded. Police personnel who were currently involved in any other smoking cessation methods were not included in this study.
Figure 1: Picture depicting the police personnel filling the questionnaire

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A validated self-administered questionnaire was used in the study. The nine questions based on the knowledge about tobacco use with demographic details such as age, gender, and educational qualification were also collected. Care was taken to make the questions as simple as possible for the participants to comprehend. Face validation was assessed by subjecting the pro forma in pilot study which was carried out on 40 police personnel in Bangalore. A 10% of the study population was subjected to check the feasibility and relevance of pro forma. This was done to have prior idea regarding the estimation of the time taken to fill in the questionnaire. The other consists of multiple-choice format questions with focus on knowledge about tobacco use. The responses were reviewed and analysis was done. A video was used as educational intervention for all the police personnel on the knowledge about tobacco use. It described all the necessary information about tobacco use and the methods to control it. Care was also taken to make the video as simple as possible for the participants to understand.

The data were collected in 1 month allowing the flexibility to accommodate any unforeseen circumstances. The data were collected during the office hours giving preference to their availability along with the informed consent of them. At baseline, a pretested questionnaire was given to the police personnel about the knowledge on tobacco use. After they completed the questionnaire, health education on tobacco use was given to the participants. After they completed the questionnaire, health education on tobacco use was given to the participants [Figure 2]. McNemar test was used to find the significant difference in the knowledge among the police personnel between pre- and post-intervention. Significance was assessed at 5% (P < 0.05). The statistical software SPSS Version 23.0 (IBM, India) was used for the analysis of the data, and Microsoft Word and Excel have been used to generate graphs, tables, etc.
Figure 2: Picture depicting the interview and counseling being given to the police personnel

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  Results Top


Results were analyzed in accordance to the objectives of the study and aim of the trial. Furthermore, the descriptive data and characteristics of the study participants were analyzed and explained using the tabular and graphical representations of the same. In this study, there were 299 participants. The participants of age 28 years were 11.4% (n = 34) and of age 22 years were 0.3% (n = 1) whereas the participants of age 40 years were 4.1% (n = 12). Mean age of all the police personnel was 29.7 (±4.93) years. When the correct answers of all the questions were compared between the pre- and post-intervention, the study participants showed a significant difference in the knowledge between the pre- and post-intervention [Table 1] and [Figure 3].
Table 1: Distribution of difference in the knowledge among the police personnel between pre- and post-intervention

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Figure 3: Distribution of difference in the knowledge among the police personnnel between pre- and post-intervention

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  Discussion Top


Tobacco use is still a serious public health problem in the world. It kills nearly six million people and is responsible for hundreds of billions of dollars of economic damage worldwide each year. If current trends continue, by 2030, tobacco will kill more than eight million people worldwide each year, and over the course of the 21st century, tobacco use could kill approximately a billion people unless urgent action is taken. Good oral health among serving personnel is essential for their efficient performance. Good oral health of the police personnel would reduce the number of urgent dental intervention and absence from duties and hence would improve the security of the entire community.[3]

The study area Haldia city, being the industrial area of coastally located Indian state of West Bengal, possesses all the major administrative offices, Haldia port, companies, and political offices, thereby keeping policepersons under constant workload and stress, which makes it common for them to neglect their general health including oral health. Furthermore, stress acts as a potential factor for engaging in deleterious habits, which further deteriorates oral health. The present study to our knowledge is the first interventional study related to the effectiveness of oral health education about tobacco use among police personnel of Haldia city. The survey featured 299 police personnel with a mean age of 29.78 (±4.9) years.

Adverse habits such as smoking, tobacco chewing, and alcohol consumption are the key health behaviors that have wide implications for fitness and performances. Chisick et al. reported doubling of tobacco use in those on active duties.[4] The present study among active police personnel revealed that 36.3% practiced tobacco chewing in some form or the other; frequency of smoking among Pakistani army soldiers was reported to be as high as 47.6% while in the present study was 70%. Gillani et al. revealed that the maximum number of Pakistani army soldiers who smoke belong to the age group of 30–40 years. Gellani et al also indicated an increasing rate of tobacco use among young military members.[5] Chisick et al. concluded that active duty and military environment encouraged the initiation and increase in the use of tobacco, which is supported by the present study.[4]

This study showed that the oral health education has important role in giving advice about smoking cessation to police personnel. A study conducted by Pantsidis et al. also showed oral health education has a role in giving advice or information about smoking cessation to patients (98.7%).[6]

Similar to the lot of previous studies, the results of this study was found that oral health education had positive effect on police personnel knowledge, perceived role, self-efficacy, and ability to perform tobacco cessation counseling [7],[8]. As one of the key strategies to reduce tobacco-related morbidity and mortality, especially cancer-related morbidity and mortality, is to encourage the involvement of the health professional (World Health Organization, 2014, ), integration of tobacco cessation in the police stations should be encouraged.


  Conclusion Top


This study has shown a significant difference in the knowledge about tobacco use among police personnel in Haldia city. It is popularly believed that tobacco consumption (smoking and smokeless) is inversely linked to knowledge, attitudes, and perception of population toward tobacco. Despite high awareness about harmful effects of smoking, people continue to smoke developing a tolerant attitude toward it. The reasons for this phenomenon remain unclear and need to be studied in further depth.

The findings in this study present the challenge and an opportunity. Curbing tobacco use among this group of police personnel should be a high priority for public health as well as financial, administrative, and readiness reason.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

1.
Sha RB, Jha N. Attitude towards tobacco consumption among residents of Dhankuta Municipality of Nepal. IJTSRD May-Jun 2017; Volume 1(4).  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Parsons JRL. Occupational Health and Safety Issues of Police Officers in Canada, the United States and Europe: A Review Essay (2004).  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Malcon MC, Menezes AMB, Assuncao MCF, Neutzling MB, Challal P. Effectiveness of an educational intervention on smoking among school adolescents. Rev Bras Epidemiol. 2011;14(1):1-12.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Chisick MC, Poindexter FR, York AK. Comparing tobacco use among incoming recruits and military personnel on active duty in the United States. Tobacco Control 1998;7:236–240.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Gillani SFM, Ansari JK, Mustafvi SA, Ahmed S. PAFMJ 2007;57(3).  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Pantsidis GM, Papageorgiou DL, Bouros D. Comparing smoking habits and tobacco-related education between Canadian and Greek medical students. Tobacco Induced Diseases 2014, 12(Suppl 1):A5  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
World Health Organization. Parties to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2012.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Kristina SA, Thavorncharoensap M, Pongcharoensuk P, Montakantikul P, Suansanae T, Prabandari YS. Effectiveness of tobacco education for pharmacy students in Indonesia. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2014;15:10783-6.  Back to cited text no. 8
    


    Figures

  [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3]
 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1]



 

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   Abstract
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   Materials and Me...
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