|Year : 2019 | Volume
| Issue : 4 | Page : 69-72
A study to assess the oral health-related knowledge, attitude, and practices among the female healthcare workers of a tertiary health care hospital
R Sushma1, Nupura Aniket Vibhute2, Harshada Tukaram Zagade3, Trupthi Saket Bhosle4
1 Associate Professor, Department of Prosthodontics, School of Dental Sciences, Krishna Institute of Medical Sciences and Deemed to be University, Karad, Maharashtra, India
2 Professor, Department of Oral Pathology and Microbiology, School of Dental Sciences, Krishna Institute of Medical Sciences and Deemed to be University, Karad, Maharashtra, India
3 Postgraduate Student, Department of Periodontics, School of Dental Sciences, Krishna Institute of Medical Sciences and Deemed to be University, Karad, Maharashtra, India
4 Statistician, Department of Research, Krishna Institute of Medical Sciences and Deemed to be University, Karad, Maharashtra, India
|Date of Submission||14-Nov-2019|
|Date of Acceptance||24-Nov-2019|
|Date of Web Publication||03-Jan-2020|
Dr. R Sushma
Department of Prosthodontics, School of Dental Sciences, Krishna Institute of Medical Sciences and Deemed to be University, Karad, Maharashtra
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Background: Physiological conditions such as pregnancy, puberty, menstrual cycle, menopause and other conditions like hormonal contraception and hormonal therapy all influence women's oral health.
Aims and Objectives: The rationale behind the present study was to get the statistics of the knowledge, awareness, and of the oral health practice of the female population working in a deemed university in a rural area Karad in south West Maharashtra India.
Materials and Methods: A specially designed questionnaire based on knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) was used.
Results: 58.8% of the participants had good knowledge regarding the overall oral health. 79.9% of the study participants had an excellent attitude towards their oral health care 75.1% of the study population practiced good oral care protocols.
Conclusion: Oral hygiene if practiced on a regular basis would help prevent a number of oral diseases but if ignored, would lead to a plethora of dental problems.
Keywords: Hormones, oral health, pregnancy
|How to cite this article:|
Sushma R, Vibhute NA, Zagade HT, Bhosle TS. A study to assess the oral health-related knowledge, attitude, and practices among the female healthcare workers of a tertiary health care hospital. Int J Prev Clin Dent Res 2019;6:69-72
|How to cite this URL:|
Sushma R, Vibhute NA, Zagade HT, Bhosle TS. A study to assess the oral health-related knowledge, attitude, and practices among the female healthcare workers of a tertiary health care hospital. Int J Prev Clin Dent Res [serial online] 2019 [cited 2020 Jul 13];6:69-72. Available from: http://www.ijpcdr.org/text.asp?2019/6/4/69/274675
| Introduction|| |
“Women's health needs to be front and center – it often isn't but it needs to be.” Health is one of the biggest issues which the women are facing worldwide.
International women's day is a day marked to celebrate the achievements of women worldwide. Women's health is one of the highest priorities, and it is time to review the situation of how women's rights are fulfilled in the world – most importantly “the right to health.” Women still face many health problems and we must recommit to address them.
Physiological conditions such as puberty, menstrual cycle, pregnancy, menopause, and other conditions such as hormonal contraception and hormonal therapy all influence women's oral health.
Pregnant women have special oral health needs due to hormonal fluctuations which have a strong influence on the oral cavity. The maintenance of oral health during pregnancy has been recognized as an important public health issue worldwide.
According to the recent census, rural and urban distribution was 68.84% and 31.16%, respectively. With more than half of the population residing in the rural areas, there is an immense need for the health policies or the scheme that needs to reach this geographic section of the country. The census also indicates that the population ratio in India is 940 females/1000 males. The female in the rural population hardly is educated or made aware of health issues. We being the oral healthcare providers serving in the rural areas should make use of every opportunity to educate and motivate the rural population, especially the women. Hence, there arises a need for surveys' researches through which we can get to the statistics to know the degree of awareness and knowledge of dental health practices among this population. On account of International women's day, health camps were arranged for the female faculty of the university which included the teaching, nonteaching, and the Class IV workers. The rationale behind the study was to get the statistics of the knowledge, awareness, and of the oral health practice of the female population working in a deemed university in a rural area Karad in Southwest Maharashtra, India.
| Materials and Methods|| |
The study was conducted as a cross-sectional survey at the School of Dental Sciences, Krishna Institute of Medical Sciences Deemed to be University, Karad, Maharashtra, India. The ethical clearance from the university was obtained for the study. A total of 600 study participants were invited for the study, of which 575 were selected for the study based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Completely edentulous patients and patients with complete denture prosthesis were excluded from the study. A convenient sampling technique was used. The participants were teaching, nonteaching, office staff, class 4 workers from dental, medical, nursing, physiotherapy, and biotechnology. A specially designed questionnaire based on knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) was used. The purpose of the study was explained to the participants, and informed consent was obtained from each study participant. A validated (panel of eight subject experts) self-administered questionnaire was used after the pretest. The questionnaire was translated and back translated by a language expert. Data obtained were analyzed using the SPSS Software v23.0 (IBM SPSS statistics for windows, version 23.0. Armonk, Newyork ). The Pearson's Chi-square test was used to find the statistical significance among the employees for their responses based on dental KAP related to oral health.
| Results|| |
From the initial pool of 600 participants, 25 study participants were excluded as they were completely edentulous. The study, hence, was conducted with 575 study participants using a KAP questionnaire.
The maximum number of participants were in the age range of 20–30 years. The maximum number of participants (n = 301) were from the nursing faculty.
[Table 1] shows 79.9% of the study participants had an excellent attitude toward their oral health care, and about 75.1% of the study population practiced good oral care protocols. About 58.8% of the participants had good knowledge of oral care protocols [Figure 1].
[Table 2] and [Table 3] show the KAP of the participants depending on age and faculty, respectively. The KAP of oral health was graded as poor (score between 0 and 2), good (score between 3 and 5), and excellent (score between 6 and 7). [Figure 1] shows the knowledge score of the study participants. About 58.8% of the participants had a good knowledge regarding the overall oral health.
|Table 2: Knowledge, attitude, and practice of the participants depending on the age|
Click here to view
|Table 3: Knowledge, attitude, and practice of the participants depending on the faculty|
Click here to view
| Discussion|| |
The poor oral health may result in unfavorable pregnancy outcomes. This is important in India because of high maternal mortality rates. The most common oral disease during pregnancy is preventable by the instituting of simple habit such as regular tooth brushing and flossing. Our study showed that about 58.8% of respondents had a good knowledge about oral hygiene, whereas 15.8% had excellent knowledge and 25.4% had poor knowledge. A study done by Thomas et al. showed that similar percentage (58.8%) of study respondents had a good knowledge about oral hygiene and 25.4% had a tertiary level of knowledge., While a majority of 54.4% had a poor knowledge about oral hygiene according to the study done in Benin, Nigeria.
Most of the respondents of the present study had excellent attitude toward oral hygiene as most of them affirmed to visit dentists as soon as they felt pain or noticed a decayed tooth. Around 79.7% of respondents had an excellent attitude toward oral health care. The results are contrast to the similar study done in Iran  where 70% of pregnant women had negative attitude of having a dental checkup in future.
Around 75.1% of respondents had a good oral hygiene practice. The present survey found that 77% of the participants brush their teeth two or more times a day, which is in contradictory to the results found in a study conducted by Parveen et al. where they found only 38.9% of the participants brush their teeth twice or more times in a day. Moreover, also a study conducted by Harikiran et al. found that only 38.8% of the study participants brush their teeth twice or more times in a day.
The use of other recommended oral hygiene methods such as dental floss (10.09%) was found to be less, which is similar to the study conducted in North Jordan by Al-Omiri et al. where it was found that only 2% of the study population used dental floss as an additional oral hygiene methods in contrast Hamilton and Coulby  found that high percentage (42%) of the sample they studied used dental floss. In the present study, it was also noted that a high percentage (48.8%) of the study population used tooth powder as a means to clean their teeth which indicates that the population needs to be educated about the correct means of oral hygiene aids.
In the present study, a majority (88%) of the study population had knowledge about the role of diet on oral health and 87% of them had knowledge about the effects of the use of mishri and tobacco on oral health. This result was in direct agreement with the results of the study conducted by Adam  and a study conducted on pregnant women carried out in India  and Pakistan.
A study conducted by Parveen et al. showed that 56.8% of the study population visited the dental clinics when they had dental pain, whereas, in the present study, a majority (88%) of the study participants visited the dental clinics for dental pain.
The literature signifies that mere awareness can prevent dental problems improving their knowledge, attitudes, behavior, and habits toward oral hygiene. It is mandatory to have an educational cell in each university/dental schools which would help in increasing the oral hygiene practices of the people.
| Conclusion|| |
Oral hygiene if practiced on a regular basis would help prevent a number of oral diseases, but if ignored would lead to a plethora of dental problems. Regular dental checkups decrease the dental problems and continuous education, and motivation of patients is mandatory to keep the mouth and body healthy. The knowledge and attitude toward the oral hygiene is associated with the education and practice of oral hygiene; hence, there is definite need for oral hygiene education in every dental setup and/or dental college/hospital for improving patient's knowledge and preventing oral pathologies.
Financial support and sponsorship
Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
| References|| |
Bustreo F. Assistant Director General for Family, Women's and Children's Health through the Life-Course. Promoting Health through the Life Course Ten top issues for Women's Health. World Health Organization. Available from: https://www.who.int/life-course/news/commentaries/2015-intl-womens-day/en/. Last Accessed on 2019 Jul 07].
Patil SN, Kalburgi NB, Koregol AC, Warad SB, Patil S, Ugale MS. Female sex hormones and periodontal health-awareness among gynecologists – A questionnaire survey. Saudi Dent J 2012;24:99-104.
Kloetzel MK, Huebner CE, Milgrom P, Littell CT, Eggertsson H. Oral health in pregnancy: Educational needs of dental professionals and office staff. J Public Health Dent 2012;72:279-86.
Chaitra TR, Wagh S, Sultan S, Chaudhary S, Manuja N, Sinha AA. Knowledge, attitude and practice of oral health and adverse pregnancy outcomes among rural and urban pregnant women of Moradabad, Uttar Pradesh, India. J Interdiscip Dentistry 2018;8:5-12. [Full text]
Thomas NJ, Middleton PF, Crowther CA. Oral and dental health care practices in pregnant women in Australia: A postnatal survey. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2008;8:13.3.
Jamieson LM, Parker EJ, Roberts-Thomson KF, Lawrence HP, Broughton J. Self-efficacy and self-rated oral health among pregnant aboriginal Australian women. BMC Oral Health 2014;14:29.
Adam V K, Okeigbemen S A, Osagle O, Osaghale E. Knowledge, attitude towards and practice of oral hygiene among antenatal clinic attendees in public secondary health facilities in Benin City, Nigeria TNHJ, 2017;17:1.
Parveen N, Ahmed B, Bari A, Butt AM. Oro dental Health awareness and Practice. JUMDC 2011;2:5-10.
Harikiran AG, Pallavi SK, Hariprakash S, Ashutosh, Nagesh KS. Oral health-related KAP among 11- to 12-year-old school children in a government-aided missionary school of Bangalore city. Indian J Dent Res 2008;19:236-42.
] [Full text]
Al-Omiri MK, Al-Wahadni AM, Saeed KN. Oral health attitudes, knowledge, and behavior among school children in North Jordan. J Dent Educ 2006;70:179-87.
Hamilton ME, Coulby WM. Oral health knowledge and habits of senior elementary school students. J Public Health Dent 1991;51:212-9.
Ganesh A, Ingle NA, Chaly PE, Reddy VC. A survey on dental knowledge and gingival health of pregnant women attending Government Maternity Hospital, Chennai. J Oral Health Community Dent 2011;5:24-30.
Shabbir S, Zahid M, Qazi A, Muneeb A. Practice and knowledge of oral hygiene among pregnant women in Pakistani tertiary care hospital. Biomedica 2014;30:134-8.
[Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]