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Table of Contents
REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2019  |  Volume : 6  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 46-48

Rapid prototyping: An innovative technique in prosthodontics


1 Post Graduate, Department of Prosthodontics, Mahe Dental College, UT of Puducherry, India
2 Professor, Department of Prosthodontics, Mahe Dental College, UT of Puducherry, India
3 Senior Lecturer, Department of Prosthodontics, Mahe Dental College, UT of Puducherry, India

Date of Web Publication25-Sep-2019

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Aboobacker S Akhila
Mahe Dental College, UT of Puducherry
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/INPC.INPC_16_19

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  Abstract 


The first method for rapid prototyping was introduced in the 1980s in the field of engineering for the fabrication of a solid model based on a computed file. The innovation of digital technology have revolutionized dentistry, and this digitized medical treatment. Rapid prototyping is a type of computer aided manufacturing that make physical objects from computer data. It is a technology that is capable of making physical objects directly from 3D computer data by adding a layer upon layer and 3D physical structures are known as rapid prototypes. These includes steriolithography, selective laser sintering, 3D Printers and fused deposition modeling. Rapid prototyping are used in various branches of prosthodontics like Implantology, fabrication of cowns and bridges, mold for complete dentures and in maxillofacial prosthodontics. Fabrication of prosthesis by these technologies have reduced reliance on human variables and thus have overcome the limitations of conventional method which requires considerable human intervention. RP techniques are increasingly playing an imperative role in dentistry and will become one of the mainstream technologies for digital fabrication of dental prostheses in near future.

Keywords: Computer-aided design–computer-aided manufacturing, rapid prototyping, stereolithography


How to cite this article:
Akhila AS, Nandakishore B, Miriam M, Anil SK, Abhinav M, Fares A. Rapid prototyping: An innovative technique in prosthodontics. Int J Prev Clin Dent Res 2019;6:46-8

How to cite this URL:
Akhila AS, Nandakishore B, Miriam M, Anil SK, Abhinav M, Fares A. Rapid prototyping: An innovative technique in prosthodontics. Int J Prev Clin Dent Res [serial online] 2019 [cited 2019 Dec 6];6:46-8. Available from: http://www.ijpcdr.org/text.asp?2019/6/2/46/267800




  Introduction Top


The first method for rapid prototyping (RP) was introduced in the 1980s in the field of engineering for the fabrication of a solid model based on a computed file. The innovation of digital technology has revolutionized dentistry, and this digitized medical treatment has now become an integral part of dentistry.[1] RP techniques, the so-called generative manufacturing techniques,[2] have overcome the drawbacks of subtractive digital techniques.

RP has proposed various applications in dental fields, such as fabrication of implant surgical guides, zirconia prosthesis and molds for metal castings, maxillofacial prosthesis and frameworks for fixed and removable partial dentures, and wax patterns for the dental prosthesis and complete denture. Prosthesis should be customized precisely when attempting to restore a face with prosthesis; the prosthesis should restore the anatomy as closely as possible.[3] Fabrication of prosthesis by these technologies has reduced reliance on human variables and thus has overcome the limitations of conventional method which requires considerable human intervention and manipulation of materials that may exhibit inherent processing shrinkage/expansion.[4],[5]


  What Is Rapid Prototyping? Top


RP is a type of computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) and is one of the components of rapid manufacturing. It is a technology that is capable of making physical objects directly from three-dimensional (3D) computer data by adding a layer upon layer.[6] First, slicing of the digital model is done, and then through an automated process of layer-by-layer construction, transverse sections are physically produced. These 3D physical structures are known as rapid prototypes. Rapid prototypes contain mobile parts with complex geometry that is impossible to be made by other construction techniques.[3],[7] In addition, before definitive fabrication of prosthesis, this technique allows visualization and testing of objects, which reduces costs.[8]

Fabrication of models in surgical planning, simulation[9],[10] in implantology,[11] neurosurgery,[12],[13] orthopedics,[14] prosthodontics and orthodontics.

The frequent technologies that are adopted in dental practice are:

  • Selective laser sintering (SLS)[15]
  • Stereolithography
  • Inkjet-based system (3D printers [3DP])
  • Fused deposition modeling.[16]


Various materials that can be employed in these technologies are wax, plastics, ceramics, and metals.[17]


  Dental Applications of Rapid Prototyping Top


Implantology

The use of dental implants has evolved rapidly over the past decade since the advent of the concept of osseointegration.[18] Development in the field of oral implantology has led to the development of successful and predictable restorative options for partially as well as completely edentulous patients. Correct placement of the implant is an important phase.[19] Improper implant placement can have a detrimental effect on the long-term predictability and success of the implant-supported prosthesis.[20]

The use of computer-aided design (CAD)/CAM technology has gained popularity in implant dentistry.[21] Application of RP in implantology pertains to 3D imaging and using 3D software for treatment planning.[22] Surgical guides are fabricated using additive RP, while fabrication of all-ceramic restorations is done using subtractive RP.[23] RP technology allows for industrial fabrication of customized 3D objects from CAD data.[24]

Automatic wax-up construction is possible with the introduction of RP technology.[22] After fabrication of the wax pattern by RP, the traditional lost-wax process is still needed. In comparison to the laser melting or sintering direct manufacturing processes, which is financially unattainable for most dental laboratories, this process is more affordable.[20]

Direct dental metal prosthesis fabrication

For the quick fabrication of high-precision metal parts, RP technologies including selective laser melting (SLM) and SLS technology are used.[23] Dental prostheses processed by employing SLS/SLM technique are very appropriate regarding their complex geometry and their capability to be customized without the extensive manual pre- or postprocessing steps.[23]

All-ceramic restoration fabrication

For the fabrication of green zirconia, all-ceramic dental restoration direct inkjet fabrication process has been anticipated using a slurry microextrusion process.[2] This innovative method is a favorable CAD/RP system with great ability to produce all-ceramic dental restorations with high precision, cost competence, and minimum material intake. This method is still in the experimental phase.

Mold for complete dentures

In the field of complete denture, there is limited literature available which reveals that advanced manufacturing technologies have not been successfully implemented yet.[24] For parameterization positioning of artificial teeth, a 3D record is taken, which yields 3D data of edentulous models and rims in centric relation. Using 3DP, physical flasks (molds) are fabricated, but finishing the complete denture is done using a traditional laboratory procedure.[25]

Maxillofacial prosthodontics

Patients suffering from facial deformity due to congenital defect or defect due to trauma or ablative surgery are treated by maxillofacial units using a variety of surgical and prosthetic techniques so that the defect can be restored to normal function and appearance.[26]

In maxillofacial prosthetics, RP is being used for:[27] (i) fabrication of obturators, (ii) production of auricular and nasal prosthesis, (iii) manufacturing of surgical stents for patients with large tumors scheduled for excision manufacturing of lead shields to protect healthy tissue during radiotherapy treatment, and (iv) fabrications of burn stents, where burned area can be scanned rather than subjecting delicate, sensitive burn tissue to impression-taking procedures. Duplication of existing maxillary/mandibular prosthesis is especially crucial when an accurate fit to natural teeth or an osseointegrated implant is needed.


  Conclusion Top


With advancements in various RP systems, this technology is becoming portable and more pervasive. The availability of this technology is growing as well. Nowadays, CAD and RP technologies are being used in various fields of medicine and dentistry and have had a considerable impact, especially on the rehabilitation of patients with head-and-neck defects. With newer innovations currently, these systems are also being used for presurgical planning in dentistry, treatment planning and placement of implants, fabrication of facial prosthesis, fabrication of cranioplasty prosthesis, contouring of reconstruction plates before mandibular resection and reconstruction, sophisticated reconstruction of the maxilla, and a variety of other purposes.

The drawbacks or limitations of the RP technology include complicated machinery and dependency on expertise to run the machinery during production and the high cost of the tools. Familiarization with these new tools, to employ them in an appropriate manner and to effectively evaluate innovations as they are introduced, is necessary for the clinician. RP techniques are increasingly playing an imperative role in dentistry and will become one of the mainstream technologies for digital fabrication of dental prostheses in the near future.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

1.
Abduo J, Lyons K, Bennamoun M. Trends in computer-aided manufacturing in prosthodontics: A review of the available streams. Int J Dent 2014;2014:783948.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Wang JW, Shaw LL. Fabrication of functionally graded materials via inkjet color printing. J Am Ceram Soc 2006;89:32859.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
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Wohlers T. Wohlers Report 2008: State of the Industry, Annual Worldwide Progress Report. Fort Collins, CO.: Wohlers Associates, Inc.; 2008.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Wataha JC, Messer RL. Casting alloys. Dent Clin North Am 2004;48:vii-viii, 499-512.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
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Sadan A, Blatz MB, Lang B. Clinical considerations for densely sintered alumina and zirconia restorations: Part 1. Int J Periodontics Restorative Dent 2005;25:213-9.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Wolfaardt J, King B, Bibb R, Verdonck H, de Cubber J, Sensen CW, et al. Digital technology in maxillofacial rehabilitation. In: Buemer J, editor. Text Book of Maxillofacial Rehabilitation: Prosthodontic and Surgical Management of Cancer Related, Acquired, and Congenital Defects of the Head and Neck. 3rd ed. Illinois, USA: Quintessence Publishing Co., Inc.; 2011.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Silva JV, Gouveia MF, Santa Barbara A. Rapid prototyping applications in the treatment of craniomaxillofacial deformitiesutilization of bioceramics. Key Eng Mater 2004;254256:68790.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Winder J, Bibb R. Medical rapid prototyping technologies: State of the art and current limitations for application in oral and maxillofacial surgery. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2005;63:100615.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Gateno J, Allen ME, Teichgraeber JF, Messersmith ML. An in vitro study of the accuracy of a new protocol for planning distraction osteogenesis of the mandible. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2000;58:985-90.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
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Faber J, Berto PM, Quaresma M. Rapid prototyping as a tool for diagnosis and treatment planning for maxillary canine impaction. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2006;129:583-9.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Di Giacomo GA, Cury PR, de Araujo NS, Sendyk WR, Sendyk CL. Clinical application of stereolithographic surgical guides for implant placement: Preliminary results. J Periodontol 2005;76:503-7.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
D'Urso PS, Earwaker WJ, Barker TM, Redmond MJ, Thompson RG, Effeney DJ, et al. Custom cranioplasty using stereolithography and acrylic. Br J Plast Surg 2000;53:200-4.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Gopakumar S. Rapid prototyping in medicine: A case study in cranial reconstructive surgery. Rapid Prototyp J 2004;10:20711.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.
Gibson I, Cheung LK, Chow SP, Cheung WL, Beh SL, Savalani M, et al. The use of rapid prototyping to assist medical applications. Rapid Prototyp J 2006;12:538.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.
Wu G, Zhou B, Bi Y. Selective laser sintering technology for customized fabrication of facial prostheses. J Prosthet Dent 2007;100:5760.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.
Kurth JP, Meyvaert I, Vandormae P. Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Intelligent user Interfaces. San Francisco: Grand Academy; 1997. p. 218.  Back to cited text no. 16
    
17.
Azari A, Nikzad S. The evolution of rapid prototyping in dentistry: A review. Rapid Prototyp J 2009;15:21625.  Back to cited text no. 17
    
18.
Cohen A, Laviv A, Berman P, Nashef R, Abu-Tair J. Mandibular reconstruction using stereolithographic 3-dimensional printing modeling technology. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2009;108:661-6.  Back to cited text no. 18
    
19.
Prince JD. 3D printing: An industrial revolution. J Electron Resour Med Libr 2014;11:3945.  Back to cited text no. 19
    
20.
Boboulos MA. CAD CAM Rapid Prototyping Application and Evaluation. San Francisco: Bookboon Ventus Publishing ApS; 2010. p. 132-74.  Back to cited text no. 20
    
21.
Sun J, Zhang FQ. The application of rapid prototyping in prosthodontics. J Prosthodont 2012;21:641-4.  Back to cited text no. 21
    
22.
Williams RJ, Bibb R, Eggbeer D, Collis J. Use of CAD/CAM technology to fabricate a removable partial denture framework. J Prosthet Dent 2006;96:969.  Back to cited text no. 22
    
23.
Ciocca L, Fantini M, De Crescenzio F, Corinaldesi G, Scotti R. Direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) of a customized titanium mesh for prosthetically guided bone regeneration of atrophic maxillary arches. Med Biol Eng Comput 2011;49:1347-52.  Back to cited text no. 23
    
24.
Kanazawa M, Inokoshi M, Minakuchi S, Ohbayashi N. Trial of a CAD/CAM system for fabricating complete dentures. Dent Mater J 2011;30:93-6.  Back to cited text no. 24
    
25.
Sun Y, Lü P, Wang Y. Study on CAD&RP for removable complete denture. Comput Methods Programs Biomed 2009;93:266-72.  Back to cited text no. 25
    
26.
Yan X, Gu P. A review of rapid prototyping technology and systems. Comput Aided Des 1996;24:307-18.  Back to cited text no. 26
    
27.
Sykes LM, Parrott AM, Owen CP, Snaddon DR. Applications of rapid prototyping technology in maxillofacial prosthetics. Int J Appl Sci 2015;21:64-8.  Back to cited text no. 27
    




 

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