|Year : 2019 | Volume
| Issue : 2 | Page : 46-48
Rapid prototyping: An innovative technique in prosthodontics
Aboobacker S Akhila1, B Nandakishore2, Mathew Miriam2, Subash K Anil3, Mohan Abhinav3, Aboobacker Fares3
1 Post Graduate, Department of Prosthodontics, Mahe Dental College, UT of Puducherry, India
2 Professor, Department of Prosthodontics, Mahe Dental College, UT of Puducherry, India
3 Senior Lecturer, Department of Prosthodontics, Mahe Dental College, UT of Puducherry, India
|Date of Web Publication||25-Sep-2019|
Dr. Aboobacker S Akhila
Mahe Dental College, UT of Puducherry
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
The first method for rapid prototyping was introduced in the 1980s in the field of engineering for the fabrication of a solid model based on a computed file. The innovation of digital technology have revolutionized dentistry, and this digitized medical treatment. Rapid prototyping is a type of computer aided manufacturing that make physical objects from computer data. It is a technology that is capable of making physical objects directly from 3D computer data by adding a layer upon layer and 3D physical structures are known as rapid prototypes. These includes steriolithography, selective laser sintering, 3D Printers and fused deposition modeling. Rapid prototyping are used in various branches of prosthodontics like Implantology, fabrication of cowns and bridges, mold for complete dentures and in maxillofacial prosthodontics. Fabrication of prosthesis by these technologies have reduced reliance on human variables and thus have overcome the limitations of conventional method which requires considerable human intervention. RP techniques are increasingly playing an imperative role in dentistry and will become one of the mainstream technologies for digital fabrication of dental prostheses in near future.
Keywords: Computer-aided design–computer-aided manufacturing, rapid prototyping, stereolithography
|How to cite this article:|
Akhila AS, Nandakishore B, Miriam M, Anil SK, Abhinav M, Fares A. Rapid prototyping: An innovative technique in prosthodontics. Int J Prev Clin Dent Res 2019;6:46-8
|How to cite this URL:|
Akhila AS, Nandakishore B, Miriam M, Anil SK, Abhinav M, Fares A. Rapid prototyping: An innovative technique in prosthodontics. Int J Prev Clin Dent Res [serial online] 2019 [cited 2019 Dec 6];6:46-8. Available from: http://www.ijpcdr.org/text.asp?2019/6/2/46/267800
| Introduction|| |
The first method for rapid prototyping (RP) was introduced in the 1980s in the field of engineering for the fabrication of a solid model based on a computed file. The innovation of digital technology has revolutionized dentistry, and this digitized medical treatment has now become an integral part of dentistry. RP techniques, the so-called generative manufacturing techniques, have overcome the drawbacks of subtractive digital techniques.
RP has proposed various applications in dental fields, such as fabrication of implant surgical guides, zirconia prosthesis and molds for metal castings, maxillofacial prosthesis and frameworks for fixed and removable partial dentures, and wax patterns for the dental prosthesis and complete denture. Prosthesis should be customized precisely when attempting to restore a face with prosthesis; the prosthesis should restore the anatomy as closely as possible. Fabrication of prosthesis by these technologies has reduced reliance on human variables and thus has overcome the limitations of conventional method which requires considerable human intervention and manipulation of materials that may exhibit inherent processing shrinkage/expansion.,
| What Is Rapid Prototyping?|| |
RP is a type of computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) and is one of the components of rapid manufacturing. It is a technology that is capable of making physical objects directly from three-dimensional (3D) computer data by adding a layer upon layer. First, slicing of the digital model is done, and then through an automated process of layer-by-layer construction, transverse sections are physically produced. These 3D physical structures are known as rapid prototypes. Rapid prototypes contain mobile parts with complex geometry that is impossible to be made by other construction techniques., In addition, before definitive fabrication of prosthesis, this technique allows visualization and testing of objects, which reduces costs.
Fabrication of models in surgical planning, simulation, in implantology, neurosurgery,, orthopedics, prosthodontics and orthodontics.
The frequent technologies that are adopted in dental practice are:
- Selective laser sintering (SLS)
- Inkjet-based system (3D printers [3DP])
- Fused deposition modeling.
Various materials that can be employed in these technologies are wax, plastics, ceramics, and metals.
| Dental Applications of Rapid Prototyping|| |
The use of dental implants has evolved rapidly over the past decade since the advent of the concept of osseointegration. Development in the field of oral implantology has led to the development of successful and predictable restorative options for partially as well as completely edentulous patients. Correct placement of the implant is an important phase. Improper implant placement can have a detrimental effect on the long-term predictability and success of the implant-supported prosthesis.
The use of computer-aided design (CAD)/CAM technology has gained popularity in implant dentistry. Application of RP in implantology pertains to 3D imaging and using 3D software for treatment planning. Surgical guides are fabricated using additive RP, while fabrication of all-ceramic restorations is done using subtractive RP. RP technology allows for industrial fabrication of customized 3D objects from CAD data.
Automatic wax-up construction is possible with the introduction of RP technology. After fabrication of the wax pattern by RP, the traditional lost-wax process is still needed. In comparison to the laser melting or sintering direct manufacturing processes, which is financially unattainable for most dental laboratories, this process is more affordable.
Direct dental metal prosthesis fabrication
For the quick fabrication of high-precision metal parts, RP technologies including selective laser melting (SLM) and SLS technology are used. Dental prostheses processed by employing SLS/SLM technique are very appropriate regarding their complex geometry and their capability to be customized without the extensive manual pre- or postprocessing steps.
All-ceramic restoration fabrication
For the fabrication of green zirconia, all-ceramic dental restoration direct inkjet fabrication process has been anticipated using a slurry microextrusion process. This innovative method is a favorable CAD/RP system with great ability to produce all-ceramic dental restorations with high precision, cost competence, and minimum material intake. This method is still in the experimental phase.
Mold for complete dentures
In the field of complete denture, there is limited literature available which reveals that advanced manufacturing technologies have not been successfully implemented yet. For parameterization positioning of artificial teeth, a 3D record is taken, which yields 3D data of edentulous models and rims in centric relation. Using 3DP, physical flasks (molds) are fabricated, but finishing the complete denture is done using a traditional laboratory procedure.
Patients suffering from facial deformity due to congenital defect or defect due to trauma or ablative surgery are treated by maxillofacial units using a variety of surgical and prosthetic techniques so that the defect can be restored to normal function and appearance.
In maxillofacial prosthetics, RP is being used for: (i) fabrication of obturators, (ii) production of auricular and nasal prosthesis, (iii) manufacturing of surgical stents for patients with large tumors scheduled for excision manufacturing of lead shields to protect healthy tissue during radiotherapy treatment, and (iv) fabrications of burn stents, where burned area can be scanned rather than subjecting delicate, sensitive burn tissue to impression-taking procedures. Duplication of existing maxillary/mandibular prosthesis is especially crucial when an accurate fit to natural teeth or an osseointegrated implant is needed.
| Conclusion|| |
With advancements in various RP systems, this technology is becoming portable and more pervasive. The availability of this technology is growing as well. Nowadays, CAD and RP technologies are being used in various fields of medicine and dentistry and have had a considerable impact, especially on the rehabilitation of patients with head-and-neck defects. With newer innovations currently, these systems are also being used for presurgical planning in dentistry, treatment planning and placement of implants, fabrication of facial prosthesis, fabrication of cranioplasty prosthesis, contouring of reconstruction plates before mandibular resection and reconstruction, sophisticated reconstruction of the maxilla, and a variety of other purposes.
The drawbacks or limitations of the RP technology include complicated machinery and dependency on expertise to run the machinery during production and the high cost of the tools. Familiarization with these new tools, to employ them in an appropriate manner and to effectively evaluate innovations as they are introduced, is necessary for the clinician. RP techniques are increasingly playing an imperative role in dentistry and will become one of the mainstream technologies for digital fabrication of dental prostheses in the near future.
Financial support and sponsorship
Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
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