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Table of Contents
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2019  |  Volume : 6  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 29-31

Assessment of awareness among diabetic patients of their risk for oral disease as complication associated with diabetics at Patliputra Medical College And Hospital, Dhanbad


1 Senior Resident, Department of Dentistry, Patliputra Medical College and Hospital, Dhanbad, Jharkhand, India
2 Professor and Head of the Department, Department of Dentistry, Patliputra Medical College and Hospital, Dhanbad, Jharkhand, India

Date of Web Publication25-Sep-2019

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Animesh Kumar Shivam
Department of Dentistry, Patliputra Medical College and Hospital, Dhanbad - 828 127, Jharkhand
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/INPC.INPC_28_19

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  Abstract 


Aim: To assess the awareness of diabetic patients of their risk for oral disease as a complication associated with diabetics.
Introduction: Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia due to defective secretion or activity of insulin. Type II diabetes is a common disorder with concomitant oral manifestation that impacts dental care. Evidence shows that many patients are unaware of the effects of diabetes mellitus on oral health.
Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive survey was conducted among adult dental patients attending a tertiary care hospital of Bengaluru city. A total of 172 patients were included in the study.
Results: Of 172 patients, 120 (69.7%) were male and 52 (30.3%) were female. Among 172 patients, 87 (50%) were aware that diabetes is more prone to oral diseases. Ninety-one (52%) of the study participants did not know that diabetes affects gingiva. Ninety-one (52%) of individuals knew that diabetes causes delay in wound healing. Eighty-one percent of the participants self-rated their mouth as good.
Conclusion: Diabetic patients are less aware of their risk for dental diseases. Thus, it is necessary for dental professionals and related government agencies to promote awareness of the relationship between diabetes mellitus and oral health to prevent harmful complications on oral health.

Keywords: Diabetes mellitus, oral complication, risk of oral diseases


How to cite this article:
Shivam AK, Farrukh A, Bhushan R. Assessment of awareness among diabetic patients of their risk for oral disease as complication associated with diabetics at Patliputra Medical College And Hospital, Dhanbad. Int J Prev Clin Dent Res 2019;6:29-31

How to cite this URL:
Shivam AK, Farrukh A, Bhushan R. Assessment of awareness among diabetic patients of their risk for oral disease as complication associated with diabetics at Patliputra Medical College And Hospital, Dhanbad. Int J Prev Clin Dent Res [serial online] 2019 [cited 2019 Nov 13];6:29-31. Available from: http://www.ijpcdr.org/text.asp?2019/6/2/29/267801




  Introduction Top


Diabetes mellitus is an endocrine disease which occurs when the pancreas does not produce enough insulin or when the body cannot effectively utilize the insulin produced by it. Insulin is a peptide hormone that regulates blood sugar levels in the body and gives us the energy which enables us to live. It has been projected by the WHO that diabetes will be the seventh leading cause of death by 2030.[1] In the IDF Southeast Asian (SEA) region, India is one among the six countries; 415 million people have diabetes in the world of which 78 million people were in the SEA region; by 2040, this is estimated to rise up to 140 million, which is quite alarming.[2]

Oral diseases associated with diabetes mellitus have been recently reported as a major complication of diabetes mellitus, and other complications include salivary dysfunction, taste dysfunction, fungal infection, bacterial infections, poor oral wound healing, oral mucosal disease, and neurosensory oral disorder.[3] Periodontal disease is the sixth leading complication of diabetes.[4] There is abundant evidence that chronic oral complications in patients with diabetes adversely affect blood glucose control. Literature evidence has proved a two-way relationship between diabetes and periodontal disease.[5] Hence, the study was conducted to assess the diabetic patient awareness of their risk for oral disease as complication associated with diabetes visiting Patliputra Medical College and Hospital, Dhanbad.


  Materials and methods Top


A cross-sectional descriptive survey was conducted among adult dental patients (defined as 18 years and above) attending the dentistry outpatient department (OPD). A total of 172 study patients were included. The study was conducted for a period of 3 months, and all the patients fulfilling the inclusion criteria visiting the OPD were included.

The patients included in the study were diabetics (type II), having at least one natural tooth, diagnosed with diabetes for at least 1 year, and who have signed informed consent. Diabetics who were apparently physically or mentally handicapped were excluded from the study. Written informed consent was then obtained from patients included in the study. A close-ended self-administered 14-item questionnaire consisting of oral health practice among the diabetic individuals such as dental visits, brushing frequency, flossing frequency, added smoking habit, last dental appointment, rating the condition of mouth and teeth, and awareness about effects of diabetes on oral health was used. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 172 patients. Results were subjected to statistical analysis. To assess the significance of the study parameters on categorical scale, Chi-square test was used.


  Results Top


A total of 172 patients comprising 120 males and 52 females were enrolled in the study. Among the study participants, 21 individuals belong to the age group of 15–35 years, 108 individuals are under the age group of 36–55 years, and 43 individuals were >55-year old [Table 1].
Table 1: Age distribution

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Educational status among the study population was as follows: 20 individuals were illiterate, 22 had completed primary schooling, 29 had intermediate schooling, 50 had secondary schooling, and 51 had university or above level of education.

The study participants rated the condition of their mouth and teeth as follows: 36 rated good, 96 rated average, 28 rated bad, and 12 rated do not know [Table 2].
Table 2: Responses of the Study Subjects on their condition of oral cavity

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Awareness of diabetic patient of their risk for oral disease as complication associated with diabetes.[Table 3].
Table 3: . Responses of the Study Subjects on Awareness of Oral Health

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  Discussion Top


Diabetes has a negative impact on the patient's health due to its many complications. Diabetic patients develop complications due to lack of awareness of the disease. The study participants rated the condition of their mouth and teeth as follows: 55.8% diabetic patient rated the condition of their mouth average, this was in agreement with the study conducted by Moore et al.[6] The present study reveals that only half of the study population was aware of diabetes and is more prone to oral diseases. Most of the diabetic patient were not aware of serious and irreversible effect of it on oral cavity. This result was in concurrence with results of the studies conducted by Awartini,[7] Masood Mirza,[8] and Allen.[9]

In the present study, it was found that only 67 (38%) were aware of the signs of gum diseases which was in accordance with studies conducted by Moore et al.,[6] Moghadam et al.,[10] and Awartini.[7] Only one-third of the population was aware that diabetes is more susceptible to periodontal diseases. This result was in accordance with the results of other studies conducted showing that knowledge of the relationship of diabetes with periodontal disease is lacking.[11]

The present study reveals that less than one-third of the study population were aware that gum diseases make it harder to control blood sugar level in diabetics. This was in accordance in the study conducted by Bhammam.[12]


  Conclusion Top


The level of awareness about dental health among the study population was deficient. The limitations of the study were that self-rated oral health assessment was done by the study participants, no oral examination of the study participants was done, and the participants were not given health education or training regarding oral health behaviors and practices and the impact of diabetes on oral health.

Regular dental visits provide opportunity for educating the patients, provision of professional care in prevention, diagnosis in its initial stages, and treatment of oral diseases. Further studies can be conducted to provide health education to diabetic patients to improve their awareness regarding the risk for oral disease as complication associated with diabetes.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

1.
Mathers CD, Loncar D. Projections of global mortality and burden of disease from 2002 to 2030. PLoS Med 2006;3:e442.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
International Diabetes Federation - unite for diabetes IDF SEA, INDIA|IDF. 6th edition 2013.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Al-Maskari AY, Al-Maskari MY, Al-Sudairy S. Oral manifestations and complications of diabetes mellitus: A review. Sultan Qaboos Univ Med J 2011;11:179-86.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Löe H. Periodontal disease. The sixth complication of diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care 1993;16:329-34.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Masood Mirza K, Khan AA, Ali MM, Chaudhry S. Oral health knowledge, attitude, and practices and sources of information for diabetic patients in Lahore, Pakistan. Diabetes Care 2007;30:3046-7.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Moore PA, Orchard T, Guggenheimer J, Weyant RJ. Diabetes and oral health promotion: A survey of disease prevention behaviors. J Am Dent Assoc 2000;131:1333-41.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Awartini F. Oral health knowledge and practices in Saudi diabetic female patients. PODJ 2009;29:149-52.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Masood Mirza K, Khan AA, Ali MM, Chaudhry S. Oral health knowledge, attitude, and practices and sources of information for diabetic patients in Lahore, Pakistan. Diabetes Care 2007;30:3046-7.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Allen EM, Ziada HM, O'Halloran D, Clerehugh V, Allen PF. Attitudes, awareness and oral health-related quality of life in patients with diabetes. J Oral Rehabil 2008;35:218-23.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Moghadam FA, Haerian A, Salami MS, Karbasi MH, Fakhr-Tabatabayi R, Vaziri F. Evaluation of knowledge, attitude and practice between periodontal disease and diabetes. J Community Health Res 2013;2:124-30.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Rehana Y, Mazoor Ahmed M. Diabetic patients; level of awareness about oral health knowledge, attitude and practices. Pak Oral Dent J 2011;31:2.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Bahammam MA. Periodontal health and diabetes awareness among Saudi diabetes patients. Patient Prefer Adherence 2015;9:225-33.  Back to cited text no. 12
    



 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]



 

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  Introduction
   Materials and me...
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