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Table of Contents
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2019  |  Volume : 6  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 11-13

Tobacco use and oral health status among adolescents visiting patliputra medical college and hospital, Dhanbad


1 Senior Resident, Department of Dentistry, Partliputra Medical College and Hospital, Dhnabad, Jharkhand, India
2 Professor and HOD, Department of Dentistry, Partliputra Medical College and Hospital, Dhnabad, Jharkhand, India

Date of Web Publication26-Jul-2019

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Animesh Kumar Shivam
Department of Dentistry, Partliputra Medical College and Hospital, Dhnabad - 828 127, Jharkhand
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/INPC.INPC_25_19

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  Abstract 


Introduction: Tobacco use is one of the main risk factors for a number of chronic diseases, including cardiovascular diseases, lung cancer, and oral cancer. Tobacco epidemic is one of the public health threats killing nearly six million people yearly. Tobacco use also contributes to poor oral health causing staining, bad breath, and tooth decay. Different studies in India are suggestive of upward trend in the use of tobacco even in adolescents.
Objectives: The objectives of this study are to find the prevalence of tobacco use among adolescents in an urban slum and to assess the oral health status among them.
Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out as a part of oral health assessment camp conducted in an urban slum. All adolescents attending the camp were recruited in the study after due informed consent, the final sample size is 130.
Results: The overall tobacco use among adolescents was found to be 95.8% adolescent boys and 27.6% among adolescent girls. The most common reasons cited for tobacco use were peer pressure followed by parent's influence. Smokeless tobacco (dry tobacco, lime, and gutkha) was consumed by 39.13% boys and 19% girls. Smoking was prevalent among 16.7% boys and 8.6% girls. However, 41.7% adolescent boys consumed both forms of tobacco. The prevalence of dental caries was high in both boys (77.7%) and girls (55.2%). The presence of tartar was found in 47.3% boys and 22.4% girls. Bleeding gums was found in more number of girls (29.3%) as compared to boys (25%). The other morbidities found on examination were ulcer (16.7% boys and 3.5% girls) and oral submucous fibrosis (27.8% boys and 3.5% girls).
Conclusion: Appropriate intervention is required because adolescence is a tender period where these risk factors such as tobacco consumption and oral hygiene could be modified by awareness and counseling.

Keywords: Adolescents, oral hygiene, tobacco


How to cite this article:
Shivam AK, Azam F, Bhushan R. Tobacco use and oral health status among adolescents visiting patliputra medical college and hospital, Dhanbad. Int J Prev Clin Dent Res 2019;6:11-3

How to cite this URL:
Shivam AK, Azam F, Bhushan R. Tobacco use and oral health status among adolescents visiting patliputra medical college and hospital, Dhanbad. Int J Prev Clin Dent Res [serial online] 2019 [cited 2019 Aug 23];6:11-3. Available from: http://www.ijpcdr.org/text.asp?2019/6/1/11/263459




  Introduction Top


Habits of tobacco, betel quid (paan), betel nut (Areca and Supari), cigarette, bidi, and gutkha are very common Indian traditions. These habits have received considerable attention as sources of carcinogens that promote potentially malignant disorders and oral squamous cell carcinoma.[1] Tobacco smoking and chewing are the second major causes of death in the world. The loss of life due to tobacco which is 5 million at present is expected to double by the year 2025. At each 6.5th second, a man bites the dust on account of a tobacco-related ailment, all around.[2] The topic for “World No Tobacco Day-2008” – Tobacco-Free Youth centers around young people and required the development of youth gatherings and mindfulness building.[3] The most powerless time for commencement of tobacco use in India is amid youthfulness and early adulthood, i.e., in the age gathering of 15–24 years.[4] Centering the essential counteractive action among youths is fundamental. Adolescence is the stage of transition when they are involved in experimenting with various risk behaviors such as smoking, risky sexual behavior, tobacco, alcohol, and drug use. In the meantime, it might be less demanding to incorporate solid practices at a youthful age as opposed to change the conduct at later ages or after the beginning of a sickness.[5] Maintaining oral hygiene is shockingly a standout among the most disregarded practice among youths, particularly in the underprivileged provincial and urban ghetto networks. The present study was led to discover the predominance of tobacco utilization among young people and to assess oral health status among adolescent patients visiting Patliputra Medical College and Hospital, Dhanbad.


  Materials and Methods Top


The present cross-sectional examination was directed among the young patients (10–19 years) visiting the Department of Dentistry at PMCH Medical College, Dhanbad. All adolescent patients (10–19 years) attending the department were approached for participation in the study. Those adolescents who gave written informed consent for participation were recruited. In case of adolescents <18 years, consent was acquired from the accompanying guardian. A total of 140 adolescents were recruited. A predesigned pretested organized poll was utilized for information accumulation. The information which was identified with their sociostatistic qualities and tobacco utilization was gathered from the adolescents. The socioeconomic status of the investigation participants was resolved according to the modified BG Prasad's classification. All participants were subjected to dental examination. The statistical analysis was completed using percentage and the Chi-square test.


  Results Top


Sociodemographic distribution of study participants

About 56% adolescents were boys and the rest 44% were girls. Around 49.23% adolescents were in the age group of 14–16 years, i.e., middle adolescence. Majority 43% adolescents were illiterate. About 75.4% resided in a nuclear family and the rest 24.6% belonged to joint family. The greater part of the adolescents belonged to Class III and Class IV socioeconomic status.

Prevalence of tobacco utilization among adolescents

In the present study, 80% adolescent boys and 21% adolescent girls consumed tobacco. Smokeless tobacco (dry tobacco, lime, and gutkha) was consumed by 39.13% boys and 16% girls. Smoking was prevalent among 16.7% boys and 5% girls. However, 41.7% adolescent boys expended both forms of tobacco. The prevalence of tobacco utilization in teenagers was 65.3%, which is high [Table 1].
Table 1: Pattern of tobacco consumption among participants

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Relationship between tobacco consumption and gender

The prevalence of tobacco utilization was higher among adolescent boys (95.8%) as compared to adolescent girls (27.8%). This difference was observed to be factually significant (P < 0.0001) [Table 2].
Table 2: Association between tobacco consumption and gender

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Oral health status of adolescents

On examination, it was found that the prevalence of dental caries was high in both boys (79.5%) and girls (51.2%). The presence of tartar was found in 45.3% boys and 28.4% girls. Bleeding gums was found in more number of girls (28.3%) as compared to boys (24%). The other morbidities found on examination were ulcer (13.7% boys and 3.4% girls) and oral submucous fibrosis (24.8% boys and 2.5% girls). Most extreme oral well-being and dental issues were seen among male as contrast with the female youths [Table 3].
Table 3: Oral health status of adolescents

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  Discussion Top


Despite a remarkable worldwide progress in the field of diagnostics and curative and preventive health, still there are people living in isolation in natural and unpolluted surroundings, far away from civilization, with their traditional values, customs, beliefs, and myth intact. They are commonly known as “tribals.”[6] The World Health Organization defined “adolescence” as being between the ages of 10 and 19 years, encompassing the entire continuum of the transition from childhood to adulthood. It is the most critical period of the development, which is second only to the early childhood.[7] Cultural beliefs and social norms have a strong association with the use of tobacco and with their significant variation in different societies for tobacco consumption. Since the study group consisted patientS from tribal area and lowsocioeconomic status, the prevalence of tobacco consumption was high in both the sexes. This was because the consumption of tobacco was a social custom and easily available. Overall, the prevalence of tobacco consumption in adolescents was 67.3%, which was quite similar to the findings of Kishore et al.[8] and Dongre et al.[9] Singh et al.[10] found that 5.4% of the children in the lower income group schools in the national capital territory of Delhi currently consumed tobacco products. On the other hand, Sinha et al.[11] reported that 75.3% of the students who were aged 13–15 years in Mizoram were tobacco users. Adolescent boys consumed both smokeless and smoke form of tobacco, whereas the girls consumed the smokeless forms only. The present study demonstrated that the prevalence of tobacco consumption in the adolescent females was 26.46%. A similar range of findings were also reported by Kishore et al.,[8] Sinha et al.,[11] and Dongre et al.[9] A very prevalence of khaini/gutkha use was found among the adolescent girls of a primitive tribe in Odisha (77.4%).[12]

This indicated that the factors which influenced the tobacco consumption were present in the home environment and within the community, i.e., social customs. Lack of opposition from the father, mother or other family members, as well as the peer group and the easy availability of tobacco and gutkha in small domestic shops in the villages, were the contributing factors for tobacco consumption. In the rural/tribal settings, the family members and neighbors who often asked young children to get tobacco from the nearby shops and the colorful, attractive packing of the tobacco products acted as other pro-tobacco influences for newer children to take up the tobacco habit. Singh et al.[10] also reported that children had a free access to the tobacco products for consumption from the shop or from the street vendors from where they purchased it.

The predominant factors which influenced the initiation of tobacco consumption in both the sexes were social customs, followed by peer pressure and as a means to concentrate on work. Sometimes, mothers and grandmothers gave tobacco to adolescent girls to ease their abdominal pain during menstruation.[9]

Family influences are strongly responsible for shaping the personality of an individual and for having a lasting impression on the individuals' behavior. Tobacco consumption was common in those adolescents whose parents also had the habit of tobacco/gutkha consumption. The habits of the family members are easily transmitted to their children, which was seen in this study and in other studies as well.[10],[11],[13]


  Conclusion Top


The prevalence of tobacco consumption was high in both the sexes in the tribal adolescents. All females and a majority of the male adolescents consumed a smokeless form of tobacco. The early initiation of tobacco consumption was higher in females as compared to the males. Social customs, peer pressure, and the consumption of tobacco by the family members were the major contributing factors for tobacco consumption in adolescents.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

1.
Saleem S, Azhar A, Hameed A, Khan MA, Abbasi ZA, Qureshi NR, et al. P53 (Pro72Arg) polymorphism associated with the risk of oral squamous cell carcinoma in Gutka, Niswar and Manpuri addicted patients of Pakistan. Oral Oncol 2013;49:818-23.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Abdullah AS, Husten CG. Promotion of smoking cessation in developing countries: A framework for urgent public health interventions. Thorax 2004;59:623-30.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
World No Tobacco Day; 2008. Available from: http://www.who.int/entiti/tobacco/wntd/2008/en/index.html. [Last accessed on 2010 Jul 10].  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Reddy KS, Gupta PC, editors. Report of Tobacco Control in India. New Delhi: Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India; 2004.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Kishore S, Garg BS, Muzammil K. Tobacco addiction amongst adolescents in the rural areas of the Wardha district. JK Sci 2007;9:79-82.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Chhotray GP. Health status of primitive tribes of Orissa. Indian Counc Med Res Bull 2003;33:99-104.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Bansal RD, Mehra M. Adolescent girls: An emerging priority. Indian J Public Health 1998;42:1-2.  Back to cited text no. 7
[PUBMED]    
8.
Kishore S, Garg BS, Muzammil K. Tobacco addiction amongst adolescents in the rural areas of the Wardha district. JK Sci 2007;9:79-82.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Dongre AR, Deshmukh PR, Murali N, Garg BS. Tobacco consumption among adolescents in rural Wardha: Where and how should tobacco control focus its attention? Indian J Cancer 2008;45:100-6.  Back to cited text no. 9
[PUBMED]  [Full text]  
10.
Singh V, Pal HR, Mehta M, Kapil U. Tobacco consumption and the awareness of its health hazards amongst the lower income group school children in the national capital territory of Delhi. Indian Paediatr 2007;44:293-5.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Sinha DN, Gupta PC, Pednekar MS. Tobacco use among students in the eight North-Eastern states of India. Indian J Cancer 2003;40:43-59.  Back to cited text no. 11
[PUBMED]  [Full text]  
12.
Nanda S, Mishra K, Mahapatra B. Substance abuse amongst adolescent girls of Donghria Kondhs, a primitive tribe in Orissa. Indian J Prev Soc Med 2006;37:49-54.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Dhekale DN, Gadekar RD, Kolhe CG. Prevalence of tobacco consumption among the adolescents of the tribal areas in Maharashtra. J Clin Diagn Res 2011;5:1060-3.  Back to cited text no. 13
    



 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]



 

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