|Year : 2018 | Volume
| Issue : 4 | Page : 68-70
Appraisal of orthodontic brackets for Adhesive Remnant Index with and without primer: In vitro study
Ayub Khan1, Sri Sujan Suryadevaraya2, B Vengal Rao3, Sweta Kattimani4, Shaik Kamal Sha5, Bindu V Bhaskar6
1 Senior Lecturer, Department of Orthodontics, Al Badar Rural Dental College and Hospital, Gulbarga, Karnataka, India
2 Senior Lecturer, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Navodaya Dental College and Hospital, Raichur, Karnataka, India
3 Senior Lecturer, Department of Public Health Dentistry, KSR Institute of Dental Science and Research, Triuchengode, Tamil Nadu, India
4 Senior Lecturer, Department of Oral Medicine, Ame's Dental College and Hospital, Raichur, Karnataka, India
5 Senior Lecturer, Department of Public Health Dentistry, GSL Dental College and Hospital, Rajamundry, Andhra Pradesh, India
6 Senior Lecturer, Department of Public Health Dentistry, Government Dental College, Kottayam, Kerala, India
|Date of Web Publication||29-May-2019|
Dr. Ayub Khan
Department of Orthodontics, Al Badar Rural Dental College and Hospital, Gulbarga, Karnataka
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Introduction: The elementary function of the primer is to boost the efficiency of the final bond. The secondary function is to protect the enamel from the ensuing demineralization by the acid-etching and to reduce marginal leakage. Primer computing is a step in the bonding procedure which necessitates increased chair time risk of moisture contamination and an increased procedural cost. Hence, the present study is intended to evaluate the Adhesive Remnant Index (ARI) for the site of bond failure.
Methodology: Eighty extracted premolars procured from the department of orthodontics and private clinics divided into two groups with and without primer, after debonding the enamel surfaces, were examined under stereomicroscope of ×20 magnification for ARI, using the 4-point scale described by Artun and Bergland.
Results: The frequency distribution of ARI with primer application showed statistically significant results. There were significant differences in debonded locations, between enamel-adhesive with primer and without primer.
Conclusions: A conventional adhesive system with primers showed low ARI scores in comparison to adhesive system without primer.
Keywords: Adhesive Remnant Index, bracket base, premolars sample, stereomicroscope
|How to cite this article:|
Khan A, Suryadevaraya SS, Rao B V, Kattimani S, Sha SK, Bhaskar BV. Appraisal of orthodontic brackets for Adhesive Remnant Index with and without primer: In vitro study. Int J Prev Clin Dent Res 2018;5:68-70
|How to cite this URL:|
Khan A, Suryadevaraya SS, Rao B V, Kattimani S, Sha SK, Bhaskar BV. Appraisal of orthodontic brackets for Adhesive Remnant Index with and without primer: In vitro study. Int J Prev Clin Dent Res [serial online] 2018 [cited 2020 May 29];5:68-70. Available from: http://www.ijpcdr.org/text.asp?2018/5/4/68/253757
| Introduction|| |
Adhesive Remnant Index (ARI) system by Artun and Bergland  is used to grade a load of adhesive left on the tooth after debonding. Beyond the years, ARI scores have been one of the periodically assess conditions on orthodontic adhesives; because the adhesive remnant score system is qualitative and subjective, many pursuits have been made to revise the original system. O'Brien et al. intended to propose a more rigorous approach for depicting the resin remnant. The bond failure at the bracket–adhesive interface is considered being safer than an enamel–adhesive interface that results in increased incidence of enamel fractures.
| Methodology|| |
Eighty sound human premolar teeth determined for extraction were processed [Figure 1]. Once the brackets are debonded, each bracket base surface is examined under stereomicroscope of ×20 magnification [Figure 2] to regulate the volume of residual adhesive remaining on samples. Later, the bracket base was assessed to check the interface [Figure 3].
Adhesive remnants were graded as per the ARI by Artun and Bergland:
- 0: All adhesives on bracket base
- 1: more than 50% of adhesives on bracket base
- 2: less than 50% of adhesives on bracket base
- 3: Entire adhesive left on the tooth with a distinct impression of the bracket base.
| Results|| |
The present study aimed to assess and compare the ARI of two different adhesive groups. The results of Fisher's test indicated a statistically significant difference in the ARI scores between the adhesives with and without application of primer as shown in [Graph 1].
| Discussion|| |
The ARI score system has proved to be of value in studies of orthodontic adhesive systems. It is a brisk and smooth method that demands no special equipment. However, its reliability requires scrutiny, with peculiar attention to the effects of magnification on the interpretation of the adhesive remnant. The results of this study show that there was a significant difference between ARI scores when the evaluation was done at different magnifications. The ARI was introduced by Artun and Bergland  to compute the amount of adhesive remaining on the enamel surface after debonding. Fox et al. stated that the site of bond failure furnishes information about the condition of the bond between the adhesive and the tooth and the adhesive and the bracket base. Farhan Bazargani et al. showed the incidence of failure of brackets bonded with and without primer, which correlated with the present study. In this study, significant differences were found in the ARI scores. It was demonstrated that the amount of adhesive tends to be greater with high shear bond strength. In accordance with those reports, Group I showed significantly higher shear bond strength values than the other group, and the amounts of residual adhesive were greater. Moreover, the use of primer convolutes the removal of residual adhesive on the enamel after debonding and can also lead to surface scratches, cracking, and loss of sound enamel. Contrarily, the less residual adhesive was found without primer, and there were no scores of 3 and less score of 2 in the group. These decisions illustrate that conventional adhesive without primer can successfully bond orthodontic brackets. The favorable in vitro bond strength recorded in this study needs to be confirmed by clinical studies, and a prospective randomized controlled clinical trial with a split-mouth design and a larger sample size should be undertaken to confirm the suitability of these for orthodontic bonding purposes.
| Conclusions|| |
A conventional adhesive system with primers tested showed low ARI scores in comparison to adhesive system without primer.
Financial support and sponsorship
Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
| References|| |
Artun J, Bergland S. Clinical trials with crystal growth conditioning as an alternative to acid-etch enamel pretreatment. Am J Orthod 1984;85:333-40.
Keçik D, Cehreli SB, Sar C, Unver B. Effect of acidulated phosphate fluoride and casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate application on shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets. Angle Orthod 2008;78:129-33.
O'Brien KD, Watts DC, Read MJ. Residual debris and bond strength – Is there a relationship? Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 1988;94:222-30.
Artun J, Bergland S. Clinical trials with crystal growth conditioning as an alternative to acid-etch enamel pretreatment. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 1984;84:333-40.
Fox NA, McCabe JF, Buckley JG. A critique of bond strength testing in orthodontics. Br J Orthod 1994;105:502-5.
Bazargani F, Magnuson A, Löthgren H, Kowalczyk A. Orthodontic bonding with and without primer: A randomized controlled trial. Eur J Orthod 2016;38:503-7.
[Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3]